3)  Chalcedonian Schism of 451 AD.

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3)  Chalcedonian Schism of 451 AD.


In the 4th ecumenical council, one of the issues discussed was the natures of Christ (human and divine). It was the finding of the council that Christ had both distinct natures (dyophysitism).  The groups that rejected the Chalcedonian definition were the majority of the Armenian, Coptic, and Ethiopian Christians, together with a part of the Syriac Christians. Today, these groups are known collectively as the Oriental Orthodox churches. They separated from communion with the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox dyophysite churches one by one over several decades.  Today, these groups are known collectively as the Oriental Orthodox churches. At this time in history the Roman Empire was continually under attack about being sporadically conquered by the Suevi, Vandals, Huns, the Franks, Alans, Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Burgundians. One has to consider the possibility that some apparently spiritual divisions might be politically driven or have nationalist dimensions. By 527 AD the Western Roman Empire had totally collapsed and only the Eastern Roman Empire / Byzantine Empire stood intact.

​Armenian Church Schism. A monophysite denomination which broke from the Orthodox Church in the fifth century (451 A.D.). Communities which belong to the Armenian Church exist in the United States and other parts of the world.