EASTERN ORTHODOX THEOLOGY
WORDS AND PHRASES:
I - P
Icon. (Gr. "image"). A Byzantine-style painting in oil on wood, canvas, paper, or a wall (fresco) representing Christ, the Virgin Mary, or other Saints and scenes from the Bible.
note: The people depicted usually have weirdly distorted faces and bodies, and the places depicted often have the appearance of drug trip landscapes. This may be linked to Eastern Mystic religions, shrines and drugs.
see "image of Edessa" or "Mandylion".
Iconoclasm. the rejection or destruction of religious images as heretical; the doctrine of iconoclasts.
Iconoclasm (Byzantine): refers to the conflict in the Byzantine Empire between 727 and 843 over the use of icons in the church. The Seventh Ecumenical Council (787 and 843) decreed the use of icons, following in the main teaching of St. John of Damascus.
Iconoclast: a destroyer of images used in religious worship, in particular. I feel therefore the use of "iconoclasm" to refer to people who oppose idols can be easily misconstrued, as such a person does not necessarily believe in seizing and destroying the idols that belong to other people, as iconoclasts very often do.
Iconodulism (also Iconoduly or Iconodulia) designates the religious veneration of icons. The term comes from Neoclassical Greek εἰκονόδουλος (eikonodoulos), meaning "one who serves images". It is also referred to as Iconophilism (also Iconophily or Iconophilia) designating a positive attitude towards the religious use of icons. In the history of Christianity, Iconodulism (or Iconophilism) was manifested as a moderate position, between two extremes: Iconoclasm (radical opposition to the use of icons) and Iconolatry (idolatric adoration of icons).
Iconography. The study and the art of painting of icons. In the Orthodox Church, iconography was developed mainly in the monasteries, which became the centers of its study and development.
Image of Edessa: was a holy relic consisting of a square or rectangle of cloth upon which a miraculous image of the face of Jesus had been imprinted—the first icon ("image"). In the Orthodox Churches, including English-speaking Orthodoxy, the image is generally known as the Mandylion
Immaculate Conception: (Catholic) Doctrine that states that Mary was preserved from original sin.
Incense: Used commonly in Orthodox services, and to them symbolic of the prayer of the Saints and the Faithful, as well as in the Old Testament Tabernacle, in the Wilderness, in the Jerusalem Temple, in the worship of God in heaven, (Rev 5:8; 8:3,4) and according to the prophecies found in the Bible, in the New Covenant worship of the True God by the Gentiles. (Mal 1:11). Today only the Orthodox Church is supposedly consistently fulfilling this false interpretation of a prophecy of worship.
Infant communion: unlike Catholics the Orthodox believe infants can and should receive communion (yet were always one church?). This may be why they originally watered down the wine.
INRI: (Catholic) Letters that stand for "Jesus the Nazarene, King of the Jews" in Aramaic, Greek, and Latin.
Investiture controversy : a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture. By undercutting imperial power, the controversy led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany. In effect it means the church got to meddle in politics but kings could not meddle with the church.
1122 - Concordat of Worms (ended the investiture controversy).
Irenaeus of Lyons - an important historical figure to study, as it is him who is accused of being the inventor of concepts involved with the Recapitulation Theory of Salvation, and the Hypostatic Union Reconciliation theory, yet precise discussion of aspects of the Hypostatic Union did not occur until far later in history. This leads me to believe the heresies were invented later or honed far later, and Irenaeus of Lyons is being used to predate a later sacerdotalist heretical gospel to give it more antiquity.
Jesus Prayer. A short prayer that the Orthodox constantly repeat to supposedly practice devotion to God; the tradition of repeating this distinctive prayer was developed in Orthodox monasteries. The text of the Jesus Prayer is:
"Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me."
see: Matt 6:7. "But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking."
Jurisdiction. (Gr. Dikaiodosia). The right and the authority of a bishop to rule over his diocese as a spiritual overseer. It includes legislative, judicial, and executive authority, which can be exercised only by individuals who have been canonically ordained and appointed to rule over the jurisdiction in question. One of the branches of the Eastern Orthodox Church, with parishes in America. See The Standing Conference of Canonical. Orthodox Bishops in the Americas.
Kenosis: Emptying. The Kenosis Theory wrongly says Jesus emptied Himself of all deity when He became a Man.
Kerygma. (Gr. "message; preaching"). Proclaiming or preaching the word of God in the manner of the Apostles. It is a method of church instruction centered mainly on Christ and the concept of salvation.
Koimissis. (see Dormition).
Koine dialektos: Common language. The NT was written in Koine Greek, the common form of Greek spoken by the everyday man, rather than Classical Greek, which was for the more educated. Classical Greek was the language which the Greek philosophers had used, but had pretty much been replaced by Koine by the time of Christ. The Septuagint is in Koine, as are the writings of the Greek church fathers.
Koumbaros. (fem. koumbara).
The "best man" in a wedding.
The sponsor in a baptism.
The address that Greek Orthodox use for their best man or their child's sponsor.
Laity. (Gr. Laikos; Sl. Miryane). Members of the Church who are not ordained to the priesthood.
Lamb. (Gr. Amnos). The symbol for the sacrifice of Christ on the Cross (cf. John 1: 29). In the Orthodox liturgy, the amnos is the first square piece from the altar bread (prosphoro), inscribed with the letters ICXCNIKA (an abbreviated form for "Jesus Christ conquers"). This particular piece is to be consecrated during the Eucharist.
Laver of regeneration.
Lex Orandi/ Lex Credendi. (Latin, the law of prayer is the law of belief). The Orthodox Church expresses and teaches its dogma and beliefs through the worship of the Church and its liturgical texts.
Litany: Greek word meaning "to pray"; an Orthodox form of prayer that includes invocations and responses.
Liturgy - the chanting of a mixture of truth and heresy. This is always bound up in the separate sin of metousiosis, or holy cannibalism. This ritualistic chanting is used to bewitch the audience into accepting heresy as it is chanted and therefore is seen as becoming somehow therefore religious truth. I trace its origin as a warped counterfeit of the Song of Solomon, that is the dialogue between Christ and his bride, and that this proves it is part of a process of religious seduction.
Liturgy of the Catechumens. The second part of the Divine 15 Liturgy which consists of hymns, readings from the Epistle and the Gospel and the sermon. In ancient times Catechumens were dismissed at the conclusion of the Liturgy of the Catechumens.
Liturgical Languages. The main liturgical languages in the Orthodox Church are Greek, the various descendants of old Church Slavonic, and Arabic.
It is worth researching if the Orthodox have like the Catholics limited languages a liturgy can be read out in.
Last Supper. (Gr. Mystikos Deipnos; Sl. Taynya Vercherya). The last meal of Christ with His disciples in the "Upper Room" before his arrest. With this supper, he instituted the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist.
Leavened Bread. (Gr. artos). Bread made with yeast (enzyma) and used for altar bread for the Orthodox Eucharist (as opposed to the unleavened bread used by the Latin Church). Leavened bread is also acceptable for the purpose in the more liberal Protestant churches.
note: did Jesus keep the old testament law in full if he went against the old covenant law and used leavened bread and alcoholic wine in the Last Supper? Interesting point of discussion. Also this gives babies and children their first taste of alcohol.
Lent. (Gr. Sarakosti). The fifty day fast preceding Easter for the spiritual preparation of the faithful to observe the feast of the Resurrection. Besides
Lent, the Orthodox Church has assigned a number of other fasting periods (see abstinence).
Liturgics. The theological field that studies the liturgies and the various services and rituals of the Church.
Liturgy. (Gr. "a public duty or work"). The main form of worship for the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. The Orthodox Church celebrates four different versions of the liturgy:
The Liturgy of St. James,
The Liturgy of St. Basil,
The Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, which is the most common, and
The Liturgy of the Pre-sanctified Gifts performed only during the period of Great Lent.
Apart from the use by the few parishes of Western Rite Orthodoxy of adapted or specially composed liturgies based on Latin liturgical rites, all the Churches that form the Eastern Orthodox Church use the Byzantine Rite liturgy, celebrating it in different languages. The Oriental Orthodox Churches, on the contrary, use a great variety of liturgies.
Original liturgies can be incredibly long taking up to 6 hours or more.
There is disagreement over the language to be used, just as some Catholics believe in using only Latin, and only from the 9th Century was it allowed in other languages than Greek, YET the Catholics claim a liturgy was only in Latin up to the 9th Century.
Logismoi. (Greek: λογίσμοι lo-yeez-mee, Russian: помыслы) is a term used to describe assaultive or tempting thoughts, often with images seen in the mind.
Logos. (Gr. "word"). A symbol for Christ, the word incarnate, or "word made Flesh," which is also called "the Word of God" (cf. John 1:1-4).
Lord's Prayer. The prayer taught by Christ in the Sermon on the Mount (cf. Matt. 6: 9-33 and Luke 11: 2-4). It begins with the phrase "Our father..." and is the most common Orthodox prayer.
The Magisterium: of the Catholic Church is the church's authority or office to establish teachings. That authority is vested uniquely in the Pope and the bishops, under the premise that they are in communion with the correct and true teachings of the faith which is shown in the Cathechism of the Catholic Church.
Magnificat. (Lat. "My soul doth magnify the Lord"; Gr. Megalynalion). A hymn of praise in honor of the God Bearer (Theotokos) or others say Mother of God . Its verses follow Mary's own words beginning with the phrase "My soul doth magnify the Lord" (cf. Luke 1: 46-55). It is sung after the eighth Ode of the Canon at Matins.
Manichaeism: a dualistic religious system with Christian, Gnostic, and pagan elements, founded in Persia in the 3rd century by Manes ( c.216– c.276) and based on a supposed primeval conflict between light and darkness. It was widespread in the Roman Empire and in Asia, and survived in eastern Turkestan (Xinjiang) until the 13th century.
Mandylion: According to Orthodoxy was a holy relic consisting of a square or rectangle of cloth upon which a miraculous image of the face of Jesus had been imprinted—the first icon ("image"). see - image of Edessa.
Martyr. (Gr. "witness"). One who willingly suffered death for the faith.
Martyrika. (Gr. "a sign of witnessing"). Small decorative icons or crosses passed out to the guests who witness an Orthodox Baptism.
Martyrology. A catalogue of martyrs and other saints arranged according to the calendar.
Maria Regina: The Eastern Orthodox often hold to the Catholic heresy that Mary is "The Queen of Heaven".
Matthewites: say they are the only real Orthodoxy, rejecting the new calendar form of Eastern Orthodoxy completely, and even rejecting the other two sects of old calendar believers The Cyprianites and the Florinites, The Matthewites had divisions when the Gregorian Synod broke away over the issue of the "God the Father" icon, which others regarded as heterodox, while the Kyrikite Synod also caused divisio disagreed with the retirement of Archbishop Andreas Anestis and the ascent of Archbishop Nicholas Messiakaris broke too.
Mediatrix: The heresy that Mary is Mediator between God and man with Christ.
medicine of immortality: the eucharist. (St Ignatios of Antioch.)
Melchite / Melkite:
1. A member of the Christian churches in Egypt and Syria that accepted the Council of Chalcedon.
2. A member of an Eastern Catholic church that uses the Byzantine rite and has patriarchates in Alexandria, Antioch,and Jerusalem.
Memorial. (Gr. Mnymosyno). A special service held in the Orthodox Church for the repose of the souls of the dead. Memorial services are held on the third, ninth, and fortieth day; after six months; and one or three years after death. Boiled wheat is used as a symbol of the resurrection of everyone at the Second Coming of Christ.
Meneon. A liturgical book containing the lives of the saints and the special hymns (stichera) for the feast-days of the Orthodox Saints (many of whom are just sinners) . It is divided into twelve volumes, one for each month.
Menologion : (also written menology, and menologe) : In the Orthodox Church, the nearest equivalent to the Roman Catholic martyrology is the Synaxarion and the longer Menologion. it is a service-book used in the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Rite of Constantinople. Menologion has several different meanings.
Metropolitan. The prelate of the largest or most important city (Metropolis) or province with primacy of jurisdiction.
Mitre. (Gr. Mitra). The official headdress or "crown" of a bishop. In Slavic churches, some archimandrites are allowed to wear the mitre as a recognition of their service to the church (mitrateor mitrophoros). The mitre derives from the crown of the Byzantine emperor.
note: incredibly revealing! They confirm themselves the "scarlet and purple heresy" by saying these crowns derives from Byzantine Emperors!!!
Miaphysitism - is Cyril of Alexandria's Christological formula holding that in the person of Jesus Christ, divine nature and human nature are united (μία, mia – "one" or "unity") in a compound nature ("physis"), the two being united without separation, without mixture, without confusion and without alteration.. see
Monarchianism: a heresy that stresses the unity of God to the point of denying the Trinity
Monastery. The dwelling place and the community thereof of monks or nuns living together in a communal life (cenobites) in a convent and practicing the rules of prayer and vows. The members of some monasteries live alone in solitude (anchorites).
Monothelitism. one of several teachings about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus unnecessary to distinguish or profess in order to be saved according to Evangelical beliefs. contrast with, dyophysitism,
The resultant debates led the Chalcedonians to accuse the non-Chalcedonians of teaching Christ's humanity to be of a different kind from our own. Meanwhile, the non-Chalcedonians accused the Chalcedonians of espousing a form of Nestorianism, a rejected doctrine that held that Jesus Christ was two distinct substances. Scripture tells us such doctrines are meddling with a mystery. The Orthodox are believers in dyophysitism and might refuse a person baptism if they refuse to make a commitment on the doctrine and say they think it is "a mystery".
Mortal Sins. (see capital sins).
As far as know the Orthodox (paradox or contradiction???) admit the existence of mortal sin, but deny venial sin, as they say "sin is sin".
Mother Church. The Church of Jerusalem, as being the first Christian Church. Commonly, the Orthodox consider as Mother Church the Ecumenical Patriarchate as being the senior Church of the Orthodox World.
note: another contradiction. they seem to mean "It is sure the first church was in Jerusalem in Israel, but our tradition says Constantinople. Its almost like a one off proof their whole idea of human tradition is based on bunk human decision making.)
The Bible says their Mother is the Whore of Babylon!
Mount Athos. The centre of Orthodox monasticism, situated on a conical mountain on the Chakidi Peninsula, Greece.
a narrow, mountainous peninsula in NE Greece, projecting into the Aegean Sea. It is inhabited by monks of the Orthodox Church, who forbid women and even female animals to set foot on the peninsula.
Mystery. A Sacrament or means of grace. The Orthodox Church considers the entire life of the Church sacramental and has never - officially defined the exact number of mysteries. However, the Orthodox Church considers:
1) Holy Communion,
2) Baptism, Chrismation,
4) The Anointing of the Sick,
Mysteries or Sacraments. The Orthodox Church makes no division - between "Word," and "Sacrament," but considers both complementary expressions of the same mystery of salvation.
Paschal Mystery. (Catholic). The central truth of Christianity; the mystery of the life, death, and resurrection and ascension of Jesus. The bible says certain things are shrouded in mystery, but not the life of Christ. This emphasis on what is a mystery in Catholicism and Orthodoxy is to hide the many contradictions with the bible in their theology.
Mysticism. The search through various prayers and practices to achieve unity with God in life (theosis) (see hesychasm).
Name-day. (Gr. Onomastiria or Onomastiki eorti). The tradition of the Orthodox people is to celebrate one's name-day instead of a birthday. Since the Orthodox people are usually named after a saint's name, all those having the same name celebrate together. Celebration of the name-day is considered to be spiritually important, and the celebrating individual develops special spiritual ties with his Patron Saint and consequently, with God.
Natural Law. (Catholic). The belief in an original moral sense which enables a person to know what is good and what is evil.
Neonomian, Neonomos:. the Gospel is a new Law,
note: it would be interesting if this term includes the heretical concept "obedience to which saves" (see Rom 11:6)
Neo-orthodoxy: in Christianity, also known as theology of crisis and dialectical theology , was a theological movement developed in the aftermath of the First World War. The movement was largely a reaction against doctrines of 19th-century liberal theology and a reevaluation of the teachings of the Reformation. Karl Barth is the leading figure associated with the movement. In the U.S., Reinhold Niebuhr was a leading exponent of neo-orthodoxy.
Neophyte. (Gr. Neophotistos). A newly baptized individual or convert of the early Church.
Nestorianism: the Christian doctrine that there were two separate persons, one human and one divine, in the incarnate Christ. It is named after Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople (428–31), and was maintained by some ancient Churches of the Middle East. A small Nestorian Church still exists in Iraq.
This is connected to the terms "Theotokos" and "Mother of God" controversies. Jesus was one person, not two, therefore Nestorianism is incorrect, and Nestorius therefore deals imprecisely with a subject called "the mystery of Godliness" in his theology. However that Mary bore God incarnated (fully man and fully God), as God created Mary and was before Mary, it is also imprecise to say she is "the Mother of God" and "God bearer" is far more accurate therefore.
(see also: Collyridianism, Ebionism, Helvidianism, Valentinianism.).
new Eve: Mary in Orthodox teaching.
Nounos. (see godparents).
Nous. It includes both the reasoning mind and the noetic energy that functions in the heart of every spiritually healthy person. In Patristic terms it is usually exclusively referred to in its spiritual function. Sometimes called the eye of the soul, the nous perceives the essence of things. It knows without reasoning. It is the spirit of man communing with God. It is the receptor of Grace. In its original state it was centred in the spiritual organ of the heart, but became scattered in the reasoning of the mind’s thoughts, deliberations and imagination. 17 This corruption of the nous in man was his fall. When the nous became darkened through disobedience it could not receive the Divine Light, the Grace of God, the knowledge giving Power of God for true life-giving communion with the Creator. Corruption and death ensued and so the need for salvation.
Novice. (Gr. Dokimos). An individual who accepted the monastic life, undergoing a period of probation in preparation for taking his vows.
Novatian c. 200–258) was a scholar, priest, theologian and antipope between 251 and 258.
Novus Ordo. (catholic) is short for Novus Ordo Missae, which literally means the "new order of the Mass" or the "new ordinary of the Mass.". The term Novus Ordo is often used as shorthand to distinguish the Mass promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1969 from the Traditional Latin Mass promulgated by Pope Pius V in 1570.
Nun. (Gr. Monachi (fem), or Kalogria). A woman following the monastic life, living in a convent and leading a strict contemplative
Oblation. (see Proskomide).
a thing presented or offered to God or a god.
• [ mass noun ] Christian Church the presentation of bread and wine to God in the Eucharist.
the central issue of the blasphemy of the mass.
Offertory. (see Proskomide).
noun (pl.offertories) Christian Church
1 the offering of the bread and wine at the Eucharist. they donated the money to a collection which was brought up at the offertory.
• an anthem accompanying the offertory.
2 an offering or collection of money made at a religious service.
Office of Oblation : a man made priestcraft ceremony / rite / ritual, were the bread and wine are somehow supposedly "prepared" for the Orthodox mass or eucharist. (see Proskomide). The Orthodox believe prayers (perhaps for instance for the sins of dead people to be forgiven) said at the time of this man-made rite are somehow increased in likelihood of being answered, duping the laity into thinking the rite has some function other than the multiplication of rites in order to increase perceived priestly powers.
Oikoumene: The ecumene (US) or oecumene (UK; Greek: οἰκουμένη, oikouménē, lit. "inhabited") :was an ancient Greek term for the known, the inhabited, or the habitable world. Under the Roman Empire, it came to refer to civilization as well as the secular and religious imperial administration. In present usage, it is most often used in the context of "ecumenical" and describes the Christian Church as a unified whole, or the unified modern world civilization. It is cited as being in the bible.
Ordination. (Gr. cheirotonia). The sacrament of the Holy Orders, imparted through the laying on of hands upon the candidate for the priesthood.
Original Sin. The corruption of humanity following the Fall of Adam and Eve.
Orthodox Christians believe that humans inherit the consequences of the Fall, mortality and imperfection, but reject any theory of inherited guilt or of the total depravity of humanity. Thus, fallen humanity still retains free will, the ability to do good and a measure of the Image of God. For this reason the Orthodox Church rejects the Roman Catholic dogma of the Immaculate Conception of Mary.
note: in their Orthodox definition of original sin here they want Brownie points for believing the obvious is wrong. All in the Spirit mature Evangelicals know the Calvinist doctrine of "total depravity" is wrong (very wrong!) and that man does not inherit the actual guilt of Adam's sins. The Oxford English Dictionary definition of original sin is "the tendency to evil supposedly innate in all human beings, held to be inherited from Adam in consequence of ", They make their theology sound right versus classic Evangelical and Protestant theology, by not pointing out the remaining core issue, that is their doctrine is either semi Pelagian or Pelagian, versus Arminian. The history of the human race does not back up the idea mankind has "a nature tending toward good". The receiving of this new nature by repentance and belief is one of the "new and better promises of the new covenant".
Orthodox: The word orthodox comes from Greek, and it can mean either true teaching or true glory. A teaching that is orthodox is genuine. When written with a capital letter, it can designate the eastern churches after the split between Rome and Constantinople in AD 1054.
Orthodox Church - metonym for the Eastern Orthodox church among the Eastern Orthodox, as the expression can be used of Jewish Orthodoxy, or the various other pseudo Christian Orthodox churches such as Oriental etc.
Orthodox (Eastern). (Gr. "correct or true belief" or "right worshipping"). The common and official name used by the Greek Christians and Eastern Christian Church which supposedly stem from the historic early Christian Church of the East. The Orthodox Church maintains Her belief that She alone has kept the true Christian faith, complete and unaltered. There are two Churches which describe themselves as Orthodox, the Eastern Orthodox Church (q.v.) and the Oriental Orthodox Churches (q.v.). 18
Orthodox (Oriental). The Coptic, Syrian Orthodox or Jacobite, Armenian, and Ethiopian Churches. They reject the Council of Chalcedon and are in full communion with one another but are not in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Orthopraxy: the belief that Union with God, to which the Orthodox hold that Jesus invited man, requires not just Faith, but correct practice (praxy) of faith, and especially the blasphemy of the the liturgy, epiklesis, man-made rules concerning their preposterous avalanche of rites, rituals, garments, religious gadgets, trappings and utensils etc. In other words eternal life cannot be obtained without the performance of what God calls sorcery, such as the Orthodox version of the mass and all the hocus pocus incantations and gesticulations, uniforms, add-ons and inventions that go with it. This is justified by scriptures such as 1 Cor 11:2 and 2 Thess 2:14.
Orthodox Sunday. The first Sunday of Lent, commemorating the restoration of icons in the church (see Iconoclasm).
Ousia: Essence, or super-essential essence, substance. In the 4th century, there was a major dispute as to the essence of Jesus Christ. The orthodox believers, such as Athanasius, said that Jesus is homoousios, of the same essence as God the Father. Heretics such as the Arians said that Jesus is homoiousios, of a similar essence of the Father. Some said that He was homoios, or similar in outlook or morality rather than similar in essence. Still other heretics said that Jesus was heteroousios or anomoios, both meaning different in essence from the Father. The Council of Nicea (AD 325) rightly affirmed the full deity of Christ and stated in the Nicene Creed that Jesus Christ is “of one substance with the Father”.
The essence–energies distinction is an Eastern Orthodox theological concept which states that there is a distinction between the essence (ousia) and the energies (energeia) of God. It was formulated by Gregory Palamas of Thessaloniki (1296-1359), as part of his defense of the Athonite monastic practice of hesychasmos [note 1] against the charge of heresy brought by the humanist scholar and theologian Barlaam of Calabria. 
Paganism. Belief in religions other than Christianity, especially ancient Greek polytheism, which was a non-revealed religion.
note: (yet theosis says they will be deified).
Palamite Theology. The theological system codified by St. Gregory Palamas (1296-1359) on the basis of the Eastern Fathers that emphasizes the unknowability of the essence of God. However, God can be known through His uncreated energies or actions, by which God reveals Himself to humanity and interacts with the believer. Palamite Theology is closely related to Hesychasm (q.v.) and Apophatic Theology (q.v..),
Palamism. Gregory palamas (d. 1359), a noble Asiatic educated at the imperial court, who became a monk on Mt. Athos, taught a real distinction between the divine essence and the divine operation. This doctrine occasioned a strange form of asceticism and hesychasm, in which the soul liberated from the passions could arrive at the sight of divine light, such as that which surrounded Christ in the transfiguration on Mt. tabor. see Barlaam.
Paleo-orthodoxy is a Protestant Christian theological movement in the United States which emerged in the late 20th and early 21st centuries and which focuses on the consensual understanding of the faith among the Ecumenical councils and so called Church Fathers. The dominant figure of the movement, United Methodist theologian Thomas C. Oden
Pantheists. say that all is God and God is all
Pantocrator. (Gr. "He who reigns over all; almighty"). One of the appellations of God. In Orthodox art, Pantocrator is the name of the fresco decorating the center of the dome, depicting Christ as the almighty God and Lord of the Universe.
(an idol with a name to prove it)
Paraklitiki, The week day edition of the Oktoechos (q.v.),which contains the services arranged according to the eight tones (q.v.) for week services. Week day services are normally chanted in the tone of the week.
Paradigm, (Paradeigma:) law, idea. Theology includes the formulation of statements about God.
Parousia: A word that means "arrival" or "presence"; it usually refers to the second coming of Jesus.
Paschal week. (Gr. Diakaimsimos or "bright week"). The week following the Sunday of Easter (Pascha), signifying the spiritual renewal and joy brought to the world by the resurrected Christ.
Paschalion: of the Orthodox Church is a set of rules for determining the date of Pascha.
Pastoral theology. The theological field that studies the ways and methods to be used by the clergy for carrying through their duties as Pastors of the Church.
Patriarch. (Gr. "in charge of the family"). The highest bishop/prelate in the Orthodox Church. Today, there are eight Orthodox prelates called patriarchs (see Patriarchate). A Patriarch presides over the synod of Bishops of an an Autocephalous Church. One has to ask, Are these men really 8 Popes?
Patriarchal rights: The Council of nicaea i (325) had recognized the patriarchal rights of the Sees of Alexandria and Antioch. The Council of Constantinople i (381) changed the order of the sees established by Nicaea I and attributed the first rank and the "same privileges of honor" to Constantinople after Rome. The fathers at Chalcedon (451), despite their assertion that they respected the sense of canon 3 of the Council of Constantinople I, actually gave Constantinople true jurisdiction over the Dioceses of Pontus, Asia, and Thrace: they suppressed the term "of honor" and added as justification the fact that old Rome enjoyed a primacy because it was the political capital. In itself, the sense of canon 28 was disciplinary and canonical; but it could easily be employed in an abusive interpretation, to concede to the See of Constantinople the same powers over the East that Rome enjoyed in the West. Hence, the papal legates and Pope Leo I rejected this canon. Before Justinian, canon 28 did not actually prevail in Byzantine theology; he gave it the attribute of law, and after him the Council in Trullo (691) and later Byzantine writers accepted it as such.
Patriarchate. An ecclesiastical jurisdiction governed by a patriarch. There are eight such jurisdictions today in the Orthodox Church, the four ancient Patriarchates of the East, and the four Slavic patriarchates. There are four ancient Patriarchates in the Orthodox Church,
4) Jerusalem. There are also five modern Patriarchates, Moscow, Soviet Georgia, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania.
Patristics. The theological field that studies the lives and the writings of the Fathers of the Church.
Patron Saint. (Gr. Poliouchos; Sl. Nebesny Pokrovitel). A saint chosen by a group, nation, or organization to be their special advocate, guardian, and protector. The Patron Saint of an individual is usually the saint after whom the individual is named. See also the article on Saints in the Orthodox Church.
Pedalion. (see Rudder).
Peace of God, (Pax Dei) movement - a movement led by the medieval church, and later by civil authorities, to protect ecclesiastical property and women, priests, pilgrims, merchants, and other noncombatants from violence from the 10th to the 12th century.
Pedalion (Greek for "rudder") - a name for Eastern Orthodox canon law.
Pentarchy. is a model of Church organization historically championed in the Eastern Orthodox Church. It found its fullest expression in the laws of Emperor Justinian I of the Byzantine Empire. In the model, the Christian church is governed by the heads (patriarchs) of the five major episcopal sees of the Roman Empire:
Pentarchy (2nd definition). The Byzantine concept of the pentarchy had evolved at the end of the 12th century into a system against the Roman primacy. The canonist Theodore bal samon (d. after 1195) contributed to this development with his Commentary on the Canons and in his Responsum de Patriarcharum privilegiis, in which he dealt with the origin, privileges, and equality in dignity of all the patriarchs.
Pentateuch: Greek name given to the first five books of the old testament.
Photian Schism: was a four-year (863–867) schism between the episcopal sees of Rome and Constantinople. The issue centered around the right of the Byzantine Emperor to depose and appoint a patriarch without approval from the papacy.
Phyletism: from Greek φυλετισμός phyletismos "tribalism") is the principle of nationalities applied in the ecclesiastical domain: in other words, the conflation between Church and nation. An excessive emphasis on the principle of nationalism in the organization of church affairs; a policy which attaches greater importance to ethnic identity than to bonds of faith and worship; (originally) specifically the claim of the Bulgarian Church to jurisdiction over Bulgarian nationals in all parts of the world.
Philokalia: (Ancient Greek: φιλοκαλία "love of the beautiful, the good", from φιλία philia "love" and κάλλος kallos"beauty") is "a collection of texts written between the 4th and 15th centuries by spiritual masters" of the Eastern Orthodox Church mystical hesychast tradition. Parallels could likely be made between nepsis and Jewish devekut. .
Pneumatikos. a priest or a starets, who serves as a spiritual guide and confessor (pneumatikos).
Podvig: “ascetic struggle" … striving against our passions in order to grow closer to God.
Polemics, generally refers to the defence of Christianity against false kinds of Christianity, such as cultism, Liberalism or Romanism.
Prayer rope. is a loop made up of complex woven knots formed in a cross pattern, usually out of wool or silk. Prayer ropes are part of the practice of Eastern Orthodox and Eastern-Catholic monks and nuns and is employed by monastics (and sometimes by others) to count the number of times one has prayed the Jesus Prayer or, occasionally, other prayers. The typical prayer rope has thirty three knots, representing the thirty three years of Christ's life. Oriental Orthodoxy also uses the prayer rope, where it is known by its Coptic name.
note: how ridiculous of them to vehemently insist they never or seldom use a rosary, then use this!
Prelest: a false spiritual state, a spiritual illness, “a wounding of human nature by falsehood” — St. Ignatius Brianchaninov.
Presvytera. (Gr.; Sl. Matushka). An honorary title for the priest's wife or mother.
Primacy of Rome: Papal primacy, also known as the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, is an ecclesiastical doctrine concerning the respect and authority that is supposedly due to the pope from other bishops and their episcopal sees
Primacy of Constantinople: an Orthodox concept similar to the primacy of Rome, but a doctrine instead about the Titular Head of Orthodoxy the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
"Primus inter pares":
the first among equals; the Eastern Orthodox pope figure, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. The title was perhaps first held by the Emperor Constantine.
List of Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople.
note: the first among heretics, the first among pharisees,
Proxenio (etymology - proxy) - the historical Eastern Orthodox evil practice of forced arranged marriages, by bullying the son or daughter into it. The daughter was viewed almost like a possession. the matchmaker was called the “Proxenitis,” (see synikation )
The Process of Salvation. This expression is very very common among the Orthodox, and is very useful to Evangelicals in that it perfectly expresses why the Orthodox believe a false gospel. Evangelicals believe "saved" is used in two ways
1) In a state of salvation now (should you die). That is on accepting Christ.
2) Saved on the Day of Judgement,
The rather naive belief of the Orthodox is, if you could fall away from God, between the "now" of being saved when accepting Christ, and the Day of Judgement, then salvation must be an on going process with you actually contributing to it. Far from it - salvation is always by grace through Faith alone. The fact that you do not throw away a gift does not mean you are earning it. It is perhaps the supreme irony that they think not falling away means from the start they made a deal with God to earn what the bible calls "the gift of God" and thus damning themselves by adding their own filthy rags to the finished work of Christ. Comparatively few Evangelicals believe the Antinomian heresy and do not say "you are just saved when you mouth a prayer" as the Orthodox try to often slanderously imply.
The Proskomedia (Gk “offering”), prothesis or proskomide: is the Office of Oblation celebrated by the priest prior to the Divine Liturgy during which the bread and wine are supposedly prepared for the Eucharist. It is a complex rite / ceremony that amounts to nothing more than turning communion into witchcraft, and the priests into wizards performing bizzare hocus-pocus rituals to magnify fancifully perceived non existent priestly powers, and "an office" of priestly functions. The ceremony is so unbiblical as to be a modern day example of the "strange fire" type sins committed by the two sons of Aaron who were slain by God.
Proskomedia Prayer: prayers said while the hocus-pocus rituals of the office of oblation occur, said by the Orthodox to increase the power of prayers or the likelihood they will be answered, as if this promise of increased power in prayers somehow justifies the existence of such procedures that amount to nothing more than turning communion into witchcraft, the pseudo priests into wizards who have fallen into the sin of Simon the Sorcerer.
Prokeimenon. (Gr. "gradual introduction"). A liturgical verse or scriptural passage
Prolegomenon: First word, the introduction to a science that lays down its basic principles.
proto-orthodox Christianity or proto-orthodoxy was coined by New Testament scholar Bart D. Ehrman and describes the Early Christian movement which was the precursor of Christian orthodoxy. Ehrman argues that this group from the moment it became prominent by the end of the third century, "stifled its opposition, it claimed that its views had always been the majority position and that its rivals were, and always had been, 'heretics', who willfully 'chose' to reject the 'true belief'." In contrast, Larry W. Hurtado argues that proto-orthodox Christianity is rooted in first century Christianity.
protopresbyter: (honorary title given to a priest)
Pulpit. (Gr.; Sl. Amvon, "an elevated place, podium"). A small raised platform or elaborate podium at the left (north) side of the solea and in the front of the iconostasis. Decorated with representations of the four Evangelists, it is the place on which the deacon or priest reads the Gospel and delivers his sermon.