EASTERN ORTHODOX THEOLOGY
WORDS AND PHRASES:
A - C
Absolution. noun [ mass noun ] • ecclesiastical declaration that a person's sins have been forgiven:
Abstinence. (Gr. Nisteia). A penitential practice consisting of voluntary deprivation of certain foods for religious reasons. In the Orthodox Church, days of abstinence are observed on Wednesdays and Fridays, or during other specific periods, such as the Great Lent (see fasting).
Acacian schism: between the Eastern and Western Christian Churches lasted 35 years, from 484 to 519. It resulted from a drift in the leaders of Eastern Christianity toward Miaphysitism and Emperor Zeno's unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the parties with the Henotikon.   
Acedia: A severe spiritual sloth.
Acheiropoieta / acheiropoieton: chiefly Eastern Orthodoxy) (Medieval Greek: ἀχειροποίητα, "made without hand"; singular acheiropoieton) — also called Icons Made Without Hands (and variants) — are Christian icons which are said to have come into existence miraculously; not created by a human. Invariably these are images of Jesus or the Virgin Mary. The most notable examples that are credited by tradition among the faithful are, in the Eastern church the Mandylion, also known as the Image of Edessa, and the Hodegetria (depending on the version of their origin stories followed—in many versions both are painted by human painters of Jesus or Mary while alive), and several Russian icons, and in the West the Shroud of Turin, Veil of Veronica, Our Lady of Guadalupe, and Manoppello Image. The term is also used of icons that are only regarded as normal human copies of a miraculously created original archetype. In other words - idols that painted or made themselves, or made by God.
Acolyte. The follower of a priest; a person assisting the priest in church ceremonies or services. In the early Church, the acolytes were adults; today, however, the duties are performed by children (altar boys).
Actual grace: (Catholic), a highly deceptive term defined as "God's special gift given as we need it to live the Christian life" in order to hide salvation by works by a devious distortion. (when you think about it more, the idea is oxymoronic and is a Calvinist style concept)
Adiaphora: Things indifferent. Neither right or wrong in themselves, but can be either.
Aerial toll houses: refers to a teaching held by some Eastern Orthodox saints and Eastern Orthodox Christians that "following a person's death the soul leaves the body, and is escorted to God by angels. During this journey the soul passes through an aerial realm, which is inhabited by wicked spirits (Ephesians 6:12). The soul encounters these demons at various points referred to as toll-houses where the demons then attempt to accuse it of sin and, if possible, drag the soul into hell. Many Orthodox insist this teaching is "part of the holy tradition" thus Orthodox doctrine.
Age of Reason. This is the time in life when an individual begins to distinguish between right and wrong and becomes morally responsible for himself. It is considered to begin at the age of seven or so, and no later than twelve.
Agnostic. is one who claims that he does not know if there is a God, whereas an atheist says there is no God. Both are liars, for both already know God exists (Rom.1:18-23)
Agrapha. (Gr. "verbal words; not written"). Sayings or deeds of Christ which were never written or recorded in the Gospels (cf. John 21:25).
Akathleptos: it means Uncontainable. God is infinite. Hence, the whole universe cannot contain Him. The term also refers to the incomprehensibility of God.
(akreveia) "strictly" or "leniently" (economia). "Strictness" is the norm.
Alexandrian rite - System of liturgical practices found in Egyptian and Ethiopian Christian churches. It is historically associated with St. Mark the Evangelist, who is believed to have traveled to Alexandria.
Altar Table. (Gr. Hagia Trapeza; Sl. Prestol). The square table in the middle of the altar, made of wood or marble, on which the Eucharist is offered. It is dressed with the "Altar Cloth" and contains the relics deposited there by the consecrating bishop. The center of the table is occupied by the folded Antiminsion, on which the ceremonial gospel book is placed, and behind this is the tabernacle with the "reserved gifts."
Amillennialism: (Greek: a- "no" + millennialism), in Christian eschatology, involves the rejection of the belief that Jesus will have a literal, thousand-year-long, physical reign on the earth. This rejection contrasts with premillennial and some postmillennial interpretations of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation. Orthodox theology is Amillennialist, however they usually refuse to have escata;logical beliefs in order to avoid identifying who the Mother of Harlots is and her daughters.
the Anaphora. (Eucharistic Prayer) by which the priest invokes the Holy Spirit . In which is the blasphemy of Epiklesis. Sacrilegiously called "Anaphora of the Twelve Apostles"
Anathema. (Gr. "a curse, suspension"). The spiritual suspension with which the church may expel a person from his or her community for various reasons, especially denial of the faith or other mortal sins. The church also may proclaim an anathema against the enemies of the faith, such as heretics and traitors, in a special service conducted on the Sunday of Orthodoxy (first Sunday of Lent). In Gal 1:6-9 God's word makes anyone anathema preaching another gospel (as the Orthodox do) but that does not mean the apostles were empowered to place anathemas upon people, especially over entirely non essential doctrines like the Filioque and monothelitism.
The Anathemas (of the synod Constantinople): the heresy of declaring people anathema over calendar issues, but themselves bringing on themselves the anathema of God promised in Galatians 1:6-9 by preaching their false gospel of works and sacerdotalism.
Anathemaizations: - In 1054, mutual excommunications of Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius began the East–West Schism. The anathematizations were rescinded by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras in 1965.
Ancestral sin: (notice they do not define this) The concept differs from original sin firstly in that it emphasises 3 consequences of the Fall of Adam upon humanity not one:
1) Thereinafter was death
2) Thereinafter was increased suffering
3) Thereinafter mankind's will was weakened.
It differs from Calvinist ideas by (quite rightly) saying that the doctrine that mankind became "totally depraved" in nature is too extreme, but they believe also the Arminian definition of man being "depraved" but not "totally" goes too far too, and that man is essentially good in nature, the closest idea in western theology being the term Semi-Pelagianism, in that where Arminians say man cannot make the first steps toward goodness without God, the Eastern Orthodox believe man, and fallen Adam, only had a weakened will after the Fall, and is essentially still good (most all agree Adam had a nature tending toward Good before the Fall)
This is made complex as the division with Catholic theology on it becomes embarrassing to both sides, considering there were supposed to be one church once. Subsequently there will always be a culture of denials about any division on it.
Anchorite. (Gr. Anachoritis, "a departurer"). A solitary monk or hermit; an individual who withdraws from society and lives a solitary life of silence and prayer.
Angels. (Gr. Angelos, "messenger"). Bodiless beings, purely spirits, created by God before man. They are superior in nature and intelligence to man; and, like man, they have understanding and free will.
(born again human beings are superior, as are sons and daughters of God, angels are not, and there is no evidence they are of superior intelligence)
Angelic order (tagmata): Some of them are appointed to guard the faithful (guardian angels). Angels are grouped in nine orders (tagmata) as follows: Angels; Archangels; Principalities; Powers; Virtues; Dominations; Thrones; Cherubim; Seraphim. In the Orthodox worship, every Monday is dedicated to the angels.
Anhypostasis - refers to the divinity of Jesus' person (see enhypostasis). related to the word hypostatic in the phrase Hypostatic Union.
Aniconism : is the absence of material representations of both the natural and supernatural worlds in various cultures, particularly in the monotheistic Abrahamic religions. This ban may extend from only God and deities to saint characters, all living beings, and everything that exists. The phenomenon is generally codified by religious traditions and as such it becomes a taboo. When enforced by the physical destruction of images, aniconism becomes iconoclasm.
Anthropomorphos: Anthropomorphic, in the form of Man.
Anthropopatheia: Anthropopathy, in the emotions of Man. Scripture ascribes certain human emotions to God, which may be weaknesses in Man but not in God.
Antidoron. (Gr. "instead of the gift"). A small piece of the altar bread (prosphoron) given to each of the faithful after the celebration of the Eucharist. Originally it was given to those who could not take communion, but it became a practice for it to be offered to all the faithful.
Antilegomena: - disputed writings - It is a matter of categorical discussion whether Eusebius divides his books into three groups of homologoumena ("accepted"), antilegomena, and 'heretical'; or four, by adding a notha ("spurious") group. The antilegomena were widely read in the Early Sacerdotalist Church such as Gospel of the Hebrews, the Apocalypse of Peter, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle of Barnabas , The Didache. is possibly a forgery and further proof of that is it is not mentioned by Eusebius as far as I know.
Antimens or Antiminsion. (Gr. and Lat. compounds, "in place of a table"; Sl. Antimins). It is a rectangular piece of cloth, of linen or silk, with representations of the entombment of Christ, of the four Evangelists, and with scriptural passages related to the Eucharist. The antimens must be consecrated by the head of the church (a Patriarch or Archbishop) and must always lie on the Altar Table. Known as a Corporal in the Western churches, this altar cloth is the Bishop’s blessing for a priest to perform the Divine Liturgy; it is consecrated with Holy Chrism, signed by the Bishop, and often contains relics, usually of a martyr. No sacrament, especially the Divine Liturgy, can be performed without a consecrated antimens. (a very significant heresy, considering they say "you have no life in you" without their communion) It amounts to the absurdity that without the bishops autograph you cannot enter heaven!
Antinomian, Anti / nomos: . against the Law. Wrongly says the Moral Law is abolished (Matt.5:19)
Apokatastasis - is the heretical teaching of many in the Orthodox church that everyone will, in the end, be saved, also called universalism. The heresy was perhaps learnt from Zoroastrianism. .( apocatastasis, )
Apocrypha. (Gr. "hidden or secret"). Some of the books of the Bible not accepted by all denominations of Christians as true and divinely inspired. Some of them were written much later but attributed to important individuals of the apostolic times, thus bearing a misleading title (pseudepigrapha).
Apographa: Copies of an original.
Apologetics. (Gr. "defenders"). also Apology.
The individuals and saints who defended the faith and the Church by their ability to present, explain, and justify their faith.
Generally refers to the defence of Christianity against non-Christian philosophy or false religions.
Apollinarianism: 4th Century heretical doctrine asserting that Christ had a perfect divine nature, an imperfect human nature, and a mind replaced by the Logos. — Apollinarian, n., adj.
Apophatic Theology. Theology of negation in which one contemplates God by denying all that is inferior to God. Orthodox theologians believe that the human mind, being finite cannot understand the infinite God, and must therefore ascend to knowledge of God in ignorance by rejecting all that can be known in order to approach the Great Unknown. Apophatic theology reflects the mystical- character of Orthodox theology and is closely related to Hesychasm (q.-v.) and Palamite Theology (q.v.).
Apostasy, the rejection of Christianity in whole or in part by one who once accepted it. One who does so is an apostate.
Apostles Creed: called by Catholics "The oldest Roman catechism". An early statement of Faith, that particularly lacks a clear definition of "the gospel by which we are saved" and thus has the fault that it does not define the church.
Apostolate - An apostolate is a Christian organization "directed to serving and evangelizing the world", most often associated with the Anglican Communion or the Catholic Church. In more general usage, an apostolate is an association of persons dedicated to the propagation of a religion or a doctrine. The word apostolate comes from the Greek word apostello, which means to "send forth" or "to dispatch". The Christian origin of the word comes from the twelve apostles who were selected by Christ; they had a "special vocation, a formal appointment of the Lord to a determined office, with connected authority and duties". An apostolate can be a Christian organization made up of the laity or of a specific Christian religious order. (OED)
Apostolic Canons. A collection of eighty-five decrees of ecclesiastical importance, referring mainly to ordination and the discipline of the clergy. The church believes that they were originally written by the Apostolic fathers.
Apostolic Fathers. Men who lived during the first century of Christianity; for the most part, this group comprised the disciples of the Apostles; their teachings and writings are of great spiritual value to Christians. Major fathers are St. Ignatius of Antioch, St. Polycarp of Smyrna, St. Clement of Rome, and the unknown author of Didache.
Apostolic Succession. The direct, continuous, and unbroken line of succession transmitted to the bishops of the Church by the Apostles. The bishops, who form a collective body (that is the leadership of the Church), are considered to be successors of the Apostles, and, consequently, the duties and powers given to the Apostles by Christ are transmitted through "the laying-on-of-hands" to the bishops and priests who succeeded them by ordination (cheirotonia) to priesthood.
The continuity of faith, worship and practice of - a local Church or eucharistic community. The Bishop as the President of the local eucharistic community is considered a successor to the Apostles. However, this position is not the personal attribute of the Bishop, but of the community of which he is the leader. Thus The Orthodox Church does not understand Apostolic Succession exclusively in terms of the ability of a Bishop to trace his ordination back to an Apostle, but also in terms of continuity of faith with the Apostolic Church of the eucharistic community over which he presides. According to Orthodox theology, only those Bishops who preside over communities which have maintained the Apostolic Faith and who are in communion with the other communities that have maintained the continuity of the Apostolic Faith can be said to be in Apostolic Succession.
Catholic def. - The unbroken chain of authority that extends from the apostles to the bishops of today
Apotheosis: The error that says that a person can be deified, becoming God. Several cults and forms of the Greek Orthodox Church teach this.
Archbishop. A head bishop, usually in charge of a large ecclesiastical jurisdiction or archdiocese (see Metropolitan).
Archdeacon. A senior deacon, usually serving with a bishop of higher rank (Archbishop or Patriarch).
Archdiocese. An ecclesiastical jurisdiction, usually a metropolis headed by an Archbishop.
Archimandrite. (Gr. "head of the flock or cloister"). A celibate presbyter of high rank assisting the bishop or appointed abbot in a monastery. In the Russian tradition, some Archimandrites have the right to wear the mitre and the mantle (mitrophoros).
Aristotelian Orthodoxy - believes that one becomes virtuous or acquires virtue by habituation. It also states that one becomes courageous by doing courageous acts and abstaining from non-courageous acts.
Armenian Church. A monophysite denomination which broke from the Orthodox Church in the fifth century (451 A.D.). Communities which belong to the Armenian Church exist in the United States and other parts of the world.
Ascetic. (Gr. "one who practices [spiritual] exercises"). A monk who has accepted a monastic life and intensively practices self discipline, meditation, and self-denial, motivated by love of God.
Ascetic Theology. A theological field studying the teachings and the writings of the ascetics of the Church (see also mysticism).
Assumption or Dormition. A feast day (August 15) commemorating the "falling asleep" (koimisis) of the Virgin Mary.
Assyrian Church of the East: is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East. It belongs to the eastern branch of Syriac Christianity, and uses the Divine Liturgy of Saints Mar Addai and Mar Mari belonging to the East Syrian Rite liturgy. Its main spoken language is Syriac, a dialect of Eastern Aramaic, and the majority of its adherents are ethnic Assyrians.
Atheos: Atheist. No God, or without God.
Atonement. (Gr. exilasmos). The redemptive activity of Christ in reconciling man to God. The Orthodox believe that Christ, through His death upon the cross, atoned or paid for human sins.
1) relating to St Augustine of Hippo or his doctrines.
2) relating to a religious order observing a rule derived from St Augustine's writings.
1) a member of an Augustinian order.
2) an adherent of the doctrines of St Augustine.
Autocephalous.church (Gr. "appointing its own leader"). The status of an Orthodox church which is self-governed and also (to some) has the authority to elect or appoint its own leader or head (cephale).
contrast - autonomous church - The status of an Orthodox Church that is self-ruled. An autonomous church (Gr. "self-rule"). is governed by its prelate, who is chosen by a superior jurisdiction, usually by a patriarchate. They are self governing also, but as they do not choose their leader there is a case to say they are less self governing.
However the OED gives:
1) autocephalous (adjective) :(of an Eastern Christian Church) appointing its own head, not subject to the authority of an external patriarch or archbishop. An autocephalous church is usually a Local Church, but there is so much disagreement among the Orthodox about who is higher than who, not to all of them.
2) autonomous (adjective) :
a) (of a country or region) having the freedom to govern itself or control its own affairs:
b) having the freedom to act independently:
Autodidaktos: Self-taught. Specifically refers to how Jesus learned some things in His humanity from the Holy Spirit or from His own deity rather than from Mary, Joseph or the rabbis.
Autographa: Autographs, original writings. This refers to the original manuscripts of the books of the Bible, which we no longer have. Only the autographs are inspired. Copies are inspired only insofar as they accurately reproduce the words of the autographs. see Apographa:
Autonomous church. (Gr. "self-rule"). The status of an Orthodox Church that is self-ruled. An autonomous church is governed by its prelate, who is chosen by a superior jurisdiction, usually by a patriarchate. (see - Autocephalous.church)
Axios. (Gr. "worthy"). An exclamation made at ordination to signify the worthiness of the individual chosen to become a clergyman.
Baptism (triple). (Gr. "immersion into water for purification"). A sacrament instituted by Christ Himself, baptism is the regeneration effected by means "of water and the spirit" (John 3:5). An Orthodox baptism is administered by the priest (in case of absolute emergency, however, by a layman (aerobaptismos) through three complete immersions and by pronouncing the individual's name along with the name of the Trinity, "the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. Amen." Chrismation follows immediately after baptism.
Baptismal Garments. (Gr. Fotikia or baptisika; Sl. krizhma). The garments brought by the godparent to dress the infant immediately after the immersion in Baptism. In Orthodoxy, these garments are considered sacred and must be either kept safely or destroyed by fire.
Baptismal Name. (Gr. onoma). The individual's name given in baptism, commonly the name of a saint who becomes the individual's Patron Saint. The baptismal names of the first-born are usually those of their grandparents.
Baptistry. A special room or area in the form of a pool for baptizing in the ancient Church. Gradually, it was replaced by the baptismal font (see kolymbethra).
Barlaam of Seminara (Bernardo Massari): a southern Italian scholar (Aristotelian scholastic) and clergyman of the 14th century, as well as a Humanist, a philologist, and a theologian. When Gregory Palamas defended Hesychasm (the Eastern Orthodox Church's mystical teaching on prayer), Barlaam accused him of heresy. He said the doctrine was polytheism over the "light" that was sought being supposedly God.
Bigamy. (Gr. Digamia). The act of contracting a new marriage while a previous one is still binding, an act forbidden by the Orthodox Church.
(an heretical definition, remarriage is bigamy in the new testament, post marital adultery, or dessertion etc are no cause for remarriage),
Bishop. (Gr. Episkopos, Archiereas). A clergyman who has received the highest of the sacred orders. A bishop must be ordained by at least three other bishops and is considered a successor of the Apostles.
Blasphemy. Evil and reproachful language directed at God, the Virgin, the Saints, or sacred objects. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is a mortal and unforgivable sin because it presumes that God's saving action in this particular case is impossible (cf. Matt. 12: 31).
Blessings: supposedly The Blessing of Christ Himself, given by Bishops and Priests to the faithful, always in the sign or form of the Cross. Here again the clergy are the vehicle to transmit something from Christ.
Burial. (Gr. Taphe; Sl. Pogrebeniye). The act of interment of the dead body of one of the faithful in consecrated ground, according to the appropriate Orthodox rites and service of burial (Nekrosimos). The Church may deny an Orthodox burial to those who have committed a mortal sin such as blasphemy, suicide, denial of faith, or acceptance of cremation.
Byzantine. Referring or attributed to Byzantium, the ancient Greek city on the Bosporus, which later (331 A.D.) became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, and then of the Medieval Greek Empire of Constantinople. Its people are known as Byzantines and its cultural heritage as Byzantine (i.e., Byzantine art, Empire, church, architecture, music, etc.).
Performing church services according to the Eastern Orthodox tradition.
Christians who belong to Roman Catholic jurisdictions and accept their beliefs, but follow the customs of the Greek Orthodox Church, celebrating the liturgy in Greek, Slavonic, or in their native language, but in the Orthodox fashion.
Calendar. (Gr. Hemerologion). The yearly system determining the Orthodox holidays and hours. The Orthodox year begins on September 1. Because all feasts were arranged according to the Julian (old) Calendar, many Orthodox churches follow it to the present day, while other Orthodox churches have adopted the Gregorian (new) Calendar (since 1924). See also the article on the Calendar of the Orthodox Church.
Candles. (Gr. Keri[on]). Candles made of beeswax are used in the Orthodox Church as a form of sacrifice and devotion to God or Saints. They are used in various Orthodox services and ceremonies and are symbolic of Christ, who is "the Light of the World." According to a different symbolism, the two elements of a candle represent the two natures of Christ: the Divine (the burning wick) and the Human (the wax body).
Canon. (Gr. "rule, measure, standard").
The Canon Liturgical "liturgical canons" - to complicate the already murky use of the word canon in Orthodoxy, that is that it requires disambiguation, there are sung liturgical canons, which are often used at the time of the eucharist, yet add praise to God for real events such as the delivery of Israel in times past etc, drawing people into being off their guard for the inclusion of the canon's poisonous sacerdotalism content. example "The Canon of St. Lazarus is written by St. Andrew of Crete". The term refers to all liturgical material, including the Creed, used for the Liturgy and the consecration of the Eucharist (see also kanon and Typikon).
Canons regular - are priests in the Latin Church living in community under a rule ("regula" in Latin), and sharing their property in common.
The Canon of the scriptures: or the official list of books recognised by the church as genuine and inspired by God.
(containing absurd Book like Bel and the Dragon, never accepted by the Jews (in one fell swoop proving their reliance on traditions is bogus) and the heresy of translating the OT from Greek, and entirely stupid thing to do.
Canonization. The official declaration by the Church that a deceased Christian of attested virtue is a saint, to be honored as such, and worthy of imitation by the faithful. The Orthodox version is called "glorification". It is heresy, as all believers are called to be saints (Romans 1).
Canon Law. The law of the church, containing the various rules, ecclesiastical decrees, and definitions concerning the faith or the lifestyle of Orthodox Christians. The Canons generally provide for all administrative or disciplinary questions that might arise in the Church, and, consequently, are not infallible but can be changed or re-interpreted by an Ecumenical Council. See also the article on the Canon Law of the Orthodox Church.
Capital Sin (or Mortal or Deadly sin). Great offences against God, or moral faults which, if habitual, could result in the spiritual death of the individual. The following sins are considered to be mortal: pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, and sloth. These are the "Seven Deadly Sins" of the phrase.
Cardinal Virtues: (Catholic) Prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance, something their own cardinals have historically been sadly lacking in.
Carolingian controversies. During the Carolingian age, Western theologians took an interest in the iconoclastic controversy of the Byzantines. Under Alcuin, they opposed the iconophile doctrine defined at the Council of Nicaea III.
Cassock. (Gr. Raso; Sl. ryassa). The long black garment with large sleeves worn by the Orthodox clergy as their distinct attire. Another such cassock with narrow sleeves (Gr. Anteri; Sl. Podrasnik) is worn under the cassock. It symbolizes the death of a clergyman to this world and his burial and subsequent dedication to God and his heavenly kingdom.
Catechism. A summary of doctrine and instruction, teaching the Orthodox faith in the form of questions and answers. The catechetical or Sunday school of each parish is responsible for such instruction of children or other faithful.
Catechesis. (Catholic) Passing on Catholic indoctrination.
Cataphatic Theology. Positive Theology based on rational definitions of the attributes of God. Orthodox Theologians consider Cataphatic Theology limited in value because the finite human mind cannot understand the infinite God. See also "Apophatic Theology."
Catechumen. (Gr. "those who learn the faith"). A convert to Christianity in the early church who received instruction in Christianity but was not yet baptized. Catechumens were permitted to attend the first part of the Eucharist (Liturgy of the Catechumens), but were dismissed before the Consecration of the Gifts.
catharsis. (purification of mind and body), supposedly part of the path to theosis.
Cathedral. (Gr. "the main chair"). The principal church of a bishop's jurisdiction, the chief church in every diocese.
(so bigger the church, the bigger the ego of the clergy. preposterous!)
Catholic / Catholic Church, Universal Church. (Gr. "universal, concerning the whole"; Sl. Sobomaya). A term describing the universality of the Christian message, claimed to be exclusively theirs by the Orthodox Church. However, in the West, it has come to mean the Roman Catholic church (v. Eastern Orthodox Church). Catholic def. = Fullness, maintaining the complete Faith as taught by Christ to His Disciples and defined by the Fathers (q.v.) and the Ecumenical Councils (q.v.).
Celibacy. The unmarried state of life. Unlike the Roman Church, Orthodoxy permits a clergyman to be married; however, his marriage must occur before his ordination to be a deacon or presbyter. Orthodox bishops are only chosen from the celibate clergy, but widowers, who have accepted monastic vows, may also be chosen.
Censer. (Gr. Thymiato; Sl. kadillo). A metal vessel hung on chains, used in church ceremonies for burning incense. There are twelve small bells attached to the chains, representing the message of the twelve Apostles.
Chalcedonian Definition (also called the Chalcedonian Creed) defined at the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451. The so called "fact" it is accepted by some Protestant Churches is a warped statement as their interpretation of many phrases in the Creeds is so radically different, such as "Apostolic Church" by which a Protestant simply means the church was started by the Apostles, but an Orthodox believer interprets it as the heresy of Apostolic Succession.
Chalice. (Gr. Potirion; Sl. Vozduh). A large cup of silver or gold, with a long-stemmed base, used for the Eucharist. It is one of the most sacred vessels of the church and is handled only by the clergy.
Chancellor. (Gr. Protosyngelos). The chief administrator and church notary in a diocese or archdiocese. He is the immediate administrative assistant to the bishop and handles all records, certificates, and ecclesiastical documents of his jurisdiction.
Chant. (Gr. echos; Sl. glas). The music proper to the Orthodox services. There are eight tones or modes in the Orthodox Byzantine chant, chanted by the chanters or cantors.
Chanter. (Gr. Psaltis). A lay person who assists the priest by chanting the responses and hymns in the services or sacraments of the church. Today, chanters have been replaced to some extent by choirs.
Chapel. (Gr. Parekklisi[on]; Sl. Chasovnya). A side altar attached to a larger church or a small building or room built exclusively or arranged for the worship of God. A chapel can belong to an individual or an institution, or can be part of a parish church.
Charisms. (Catholic) Special graces given an individual which directly or indirectly benefit the Catholic church, the Pope, and profits.
Chatjis. (see Hatjis).
Chrism. (Gr. Myrron). Sanctified oil composed of several ingredients and fragrances, used in the sacrament of Chrismation (after Baptism). The Holy Chrism in the Orthodox Church is exclusively prepared by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and is blessed in a series of preparations and ceremonies. Holy Thursday is customarily the day of its consecration.
The term chrismation comes about because it involves anointing the recipient of the sacrament with chrism, which according to eastern Christian belief, the Apostles sanctified and introduced for all priests to use as a replacement for laying on of hands by the Apostles.
Chrism consists of a "mixture of forty sweet-smelling substances and pure olive oil" sanctified by a bishop with some older chrism added in, in the belief that some trace of the initial chrism sanctified by the Apostles remains therein.
Although in theory any bishop (q.v.) can consecrate Holy Chrism, in practice only the primates of autocephalous Churches (q.v.), such as the Ecumenical Patriarch (q.v.), or the Patriarch (q.v.) of Antioch, consecrate Holy Chrism.
Chrismation. The anointing with Holy Chrism by a Priest immediately following Baptism. Chrismation bestows the gift of the Holy Spirit, and is the Orthodox equivalent to the Roman Catholic Sacrament of Confirmation. Chrismation completes Baptism and is normally administered together with Baptism and Holy Communion to form the entrance rite of the Church. In the Orthodox Church, after baptism infants receive Chrismation and may take Holy Communion. Converts to Orthodoxy from churches who baptize with water in the name of the Trinity are at times received into the Orthodox Church through profession of faith and the Sacrament of Chrismation.
note: if the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox were once one church together, on what date did the Catholics supposedly drop using "apostolic chrism" from triple baptism of infants?
Christmas: the annual Christian festival celebrating Christ's birth, held on 25 December in the Catholic Church and Modern Eastern Orthodox, and 6th January by the Old Calendarists. The official sites like to miss it out their dictionaries as it is an immediate reminder the two dates for it refute that =Tradition is on a par with holy scripture.
Christology "Christological controversies". A subject or field of dogmatic theology examining the belief of the church and the history of beliefs about Christ.
(Their bogus church is not synonymous with Jesus)
Christotokos: similar to Theotokos, but some Orthodox theologians completely reject the term as implying somehow an attack on the one person of Christ with two natures.
Churching. (Gr. Sarantismos). A service of thanksgiving and blessing of women after childbirth. In the Orthodox church, this rite is performed on the fortieth day after birth and is reminiscent of the Old Testament ceremony of purification (Lev. 12: 2-8) and the presentation of Jesus at the Temple (Luke 2: 22-29).
Church of the East - also known as the Nestorian Church and the Persian Church, was an Eastern Christian denomination that in 410 organised itself within the Sasanian Empire and in 424 declared its leader independent of other Christian leaders. From the Persian Empire it spread to other parts of Asia in late antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Closed communion: is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of Holy Communion (also called Eucharist, The Lord's Supper) to those who are members in good standing of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation.
Collyridianism: is the heresy that holds that Mary is a divine goddess worthy of the worship of adoration. The heresy was popular in pre-Islamic Arabia (AD 300s-500s) and it is likely the reason that the Arabic Quran wrongly assumes that the Christian Trinity is God, Jesus, Mary. The heresy’s name of Collyridianism comes from the Greek word κολλυρις meaning “bread roll” since adherents offered quasi-Eucharistic bread sacrifice to the Blessed Virgin Mary. (see also: Ebionism, Helvidianism, Nestorianism, Valentinianism.)
1) (Gr. koinonia). The receiving of the sacrament of the Eucharist after proper preparation, fasting, and confession. Orthodox Christians are encouraged to receive communion as often as possible, even daily.
2) A state of full Sacramental union whereby two local Churches share a common faith and practice and as a result share Sacramental Communion. Intercommunion between local Churches that do not share a common faith is inconceivable from the Orthodox point of view, because unity of faith is necessary for sacramental unity. Communion is not identical with administrative unity. For this reason Autocephalous Churches (q.v) as well as the Orthodox jurisdictions in America are in Communion with each other, but maintain their separate administrative structures and procedures.
Communion of Saints. The Orthodox Church believes that all the people of God-members of the Church, either the living on earth or the departed in heaven-are in constant communion and fellowship with each other in faith, grace, and prayers, since they constitute one Body in Christ-the Church.
in Catholicism - "Union of believers on earth, the souls in purgatory, and blessed in heaven, altogether forming one church.
conciliar: relating to or proceeding from a council, especially an ecclesiastical one: conciliar decrees. (notice it ends in the word " liar " )
Conditional salvation. Another veiled way of expressing salvation via works and priestcraft is the expression "conditional salvation" instead of the more common expressions they use like "the synergy of salvation" or "the process of salvation" . There is a similar heresy sometimes seen among Protestants. It is a misunderstanding of the "root versus the fruit" argument of salvation. If you throw away your salvation by an apostasy into unbelief, or unrepentant long term works of the flesh, that is not the same as salvation being conditional on your obedience and continuation in works and repentance of sin, which is making those things a root of salvation, not a fruit of it. Not throwing away salvation, does not mean you are aiding the free gift of it.
Consensus Patrum. see Fathers.. the common Faith of the Fathers.
Constantinianization: the melding of church and state through the interventions of the violent Emperor Constantine the Great, , which inevitably involved the persecution of those refusing to agree, and led later to so called heretic burning, some of whom will have been real non violent Christians refusing to accept corrupted authority figures like Constantine. This is subtly referred to in the Book of Revelation as the scarlet and purple heresy (Rev 17).
Edict of Thessalonica. see Oikoumene . Caesaropapism .
Constantinian shift / or paradigm: a term used by some theologians and historians of antiquity to describe the political and theological aspects and outcomes of the 4th-century process of Constantine's integration of the Imperial government with the Church that began with the First Council of Nicaea. The term was popularized by the Mennonite theologian John H. Yoder.
Confession. (Gr. Exomologisis). The act of confessing or acknowledgment of sins by an individual before God in the presence of a priest, who serves as a spiritual guide and confessor (pneumatikos) authorized to ask for forgiveness and to administer a penance. confession often takes place before an icon of Jesus Christ.
Orthodox understand that the confession is not made to the priest, but to Christ, and the priest stands "only" as witness and guide (but this contradicts confession in "The Service Book Of The Holy Orthodox Church by Hapgood". , and oxymoronic placative euphemisms are commonly used as justifying sophisms in Orthodoxy to disguise there false doctrines). Before confessing, the penitent venerates the Gospel Book and cross, and places the thumb and first two fingers of his right hand on the feet of Christ as he is depicted on the cross. The confessor will often read an admonition warning the penitent to make a full confession, holding nothing back.
In general practice, after one confesses to one's spiritual guide (a priest or a starets), the parish priest (who may or may not have heard the confession) covers the head of the person with his Epitrachelion (Stole) and reads the Prayer of Absolution, asking God to forgive the transgression of the individual (the specific prayer differs between Greek and Slavic use). It is not uncommon for a person to confess his sins to his spiritual guide on a regular basis but only seek out the priest to read the prayer before receiving Holy Communion.
The humiliation of people by having a witness to your every confession of sin to God is another heresy in itself.
A person who defended and publicly confessed the Faith, thereby exposing himself to persecution (Homologetis).
(frankly this is similar to the word Protestant PRO=for TESTANT=a testimony. honestly they are such hypocrites with this!
Co-Redemptrix: The heresy that Mary is Co-Redeemer, or Co-Saviour with Christ. The so called justifications for this belief are Mary giving her consent to bear the Christ, and that she answers prayers for sins of the dead and living to be forgiven.
The Corpus : forms the basis of Latin jurisprudence (including ecclesiastical Canon Law) and, for historians, provides a valuable insight into the concerns and activities of the later Roman Empire.
Consecration. (Gr. Heirotonia). The ordination of an individual to priesthood through the sacrament of Holy Orders.
Consecration of a Church. (see Engainia).
Council, Ecumenical. (Gr. Synodos; Sl. Sobor). Assembly of representatives from all church jurisdictions convoked for the settlement of ecclesiastical or doctrinal problems and disputes. The Orthodox Church recognizes the following seven Ecumenical Councils:
1) Nicaea, in 325. Fathers present, 318. Condemned Arianism, defined divinity of Christ, and composed first part of Creed.
Constantinople, 381. Fathers, 180. Condemned Apollinarianism, defined divinity of the Holy Spirit, and completed the Creed.
2) Ephesus, 431. Fathers, 200. Condemned Nestorianism and defined the term Theotokos.
3) Chalcedon, 451. Fathers, 630. Condemned Monophysitism.
4) Constantinople, 553. Fathers, 165. Condemned heretics and pagans.
5) Constantinople, 680. Fathers, 281. Condemned Monothelitism. The so-called Quinisext or in Trullo was held in Constantinople.
6) Constantinople (Trullo), 692. Regulated disciplinary matters to complete the Fifth and the Sixth Ecumenical Councils.
7) Nicaea, 787 (again in 843). Fathers, 350. Condemned Iconoclasm.
Council of Lyons. Byzantine theology in the 13th century gravitated around the Council of Lyons.
Council of Hieria - of 754, later rejected by the pre 1054 so called "church". It was summoned by the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine V in 754 in the palace of Hieria opposite Constantinople. This council condemned the use of icons as heresy. So in the time period between 754 and it rejection, how many "apostolic church" members accepted it? And thus were supposedly apostates because of that?
Crosier. (Gr. Ravdos or Pateritsa). The pastoral staff of a bishop, signifying his responsibilities and the authority by which he spiritually rules his flock.
Crowns. (Gr. Stephana). A metal crown or wreath made of cloth in the shape of lemon blossoms, with which the priest "crowns" the newlyweds during the sacrament of Matrimony. The crowns are white, signifying purity, and represent the power that is given to the newlyweds to become "king and queen" of their home.
crucifix: a representation of a cross with a figure of Christ on it. of which there are two types
1) Sculpted - a graven image of God in the flesh (engrave or sculpt)
2) Painted - icon style,
The sculpted crucifix is common in Orthodox churchianity.
Cyprianites: One of three major types of Old Calendarist Eastern Orthodox Churches, the others being the Florinites (largest) and the .Matthewites (smallest). see old calendarists.