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Miscellaneous Saints.


sorry this is in early stages of research ........


During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the Empire again expanded and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia.

The Empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city.[6] However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the Empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms.

Siege of Constantinople (674–678)

Greek fire was first used by the Byzantine Navy during the Byzantine–Arab Wars (from the Madrid SkylitzesBiblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid).The Arabs, now firmly in control of Syria and the Levant, sent frequent raiding parties deep into Asia Minor, and in 674–678 laid siege to Constantinople itself. The Arab fleet was finally repulsed through the use of Greek fire, and a thirty-years' truce was signed between the Empire and the Umayyad Caliphate.[69] However, the Anatolian raids continued unabated, and accelerated the demise of classical urban culture, with the inhabitants of many cities either refortifying much smaller areas within the old city walls, or relocating entirely to nearby fortresses.[70] Constantinople itself dropped substantially in size, from 500,000 inhabitants to just 40,000–70,000, and, like other urban centres, it was partly ruralised. The city also lost the free grain shipments in 618, after Egypt fell first to the Persians and then to the Arabs, and public wheat distribution ceased.[71]
The void left by the disappearance of the old semi-autonomous civic institutions was filled by the theme system, which entailed dividing Asia Minor into "provinces" occupied by distinct armies that assumed civil authority and answered directly to the imperial administration. This system may have had its roots in certain ad hoc measures taken by Heraclius, but over the course of the 7th century it developed into an entirely new system of imperial governance.[72] The massive cultural and institutional restructuring of the Empire consequent on the loss of territory in the 7th century has been said to have caused a decisive break in east Mediterranean Romanness and that the Byzantine state is subsequently best understood as another successor state rather than a real continuation of the Roman Empire.[73]

Religious dispute over iconoclasm"

Main article: Byzantine iconoclasm

The 8th and early 9th centuries were also dominated by controversy and religious division over Iconoclasm, which was the main political issue in the Empire for over a century. Icons (here meaning all forms of religious imagery) were banned by Leo and Constantine from around 730, leading to revolts by iconodules (supporters of icons) throughout the empire. After the efforts of empress Irene, the Second Council of Nicaea met in 787 and affirmed that icons could be venerated but not worshiped. Irene is said to have endeavoured to negotiate a marriage between herself and Charlemagne, but, according to Theophanes the Confessor, the scheme was frustrated by Aetios, one of her favourites.[80]
In the early 9th century, Leo V reintroduced the policy of iconoclasm, but in 843 empress Theodora restored the veneration of icons with the help of Patriarch Methodios.[81] Iconoclasm played a part in the further alienation of East from West, which worsened during the so-called Photian schism, when Pope Nicholas Ichallenged the elevation of Photios to the patriarchate.[82]


In Greek mythology, the Curetes were identified as armed priests.[1] In Ancient Rome, the Salii who were armed priests carried sacred shields through the city during the March festivals.[2] Livy (59 BC–17 AD) mentions armati sacerdotes (armed priests).[3]
The warrior-priest was a common figure in the First Serbian Uprising (1804–13).[7] Several archpriests and priests were commanders in the uprising.[8] Serbian Orthodox monasteries sent monks to join the ranks of the Serbian Army.[7]
Serbian Orthodox archpriest Vukajlo Božović was a guerilla leader in the Kosovo Vilayet.


Acaciusc. 303 Byzantium
Andrew the Generalc. 300 Cilicia
Demetrius of Thessaloniki 304Sirmium
Emeterius and Chelidoniusc. 300Calagurris in Hispania Tarraconensis
Florianc. 303 Lauriacum in Noricum
Georgec. 303 Nicomedia in Bithynia
Gereon Catholic Church
Joan of ArcCatholic Church
Maurice and
the Theban Legion 287Agaunum in Alpes Poeninae et Graiae Catholic Church
Martin of ToursCatholic Church
Maximilian 295 Tebessa in Africa Pronsularis
Marcellus of Tangier 298Tingis in Mauretania Tingitana
Menasc. 309 Cotyaeum in Phrygia
Mercurius 250 Caesarea in Cappadocia
Sergius and Bacchusc. 305 Resafa and Barbalissus in Syria Euphratensis
Theodore of Amasea 306 Amasea in Helenopontus
Typasius the Veteran 304 Tigava in Mauretania Caesariensis
Varusc. 307 Egypt
Victor the Moorc. 303 Milan in Italy
Nicetas the Goth 372 Dacia
Forty Martyrs of Sebaste 320 Sebaste

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