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4th century:

​The 4th century begins with civil war resulting in the ascendancy of Constantine I, then, after his death, wars with Persia and Germanic tribes, punctuated frequently with more civil wars.



   *   Constantine's: persecution of Arians.

   *   Violence in the reign of Constantius II. When Paul, the orthodox bishop of Constantinople, was banished by imperial decree, a riot broke out that resulted in 3000 deaths

   *   Monks in Alexandria: were the first to gain a reputation for violence and cruelty.

   *   At Ephesus, a fight broke out in a council of bishops resulting in one of them being murdered. Gibbon's assessment was that "the bonds of civil society were torn asunder by the fury of religious factions." Gregory of Nazianzus lamented that the Kingdom of heaven had been converted into the "image of hell" by religious discord.

   *  Athanasius of Alexandria (so called saint): -  Richard Rubenstein and Timothy Barnes allege he practiced the suppression of the dissent through violence and murder.

    *  Julian the Apostate: tried  to restore paganism in the empire.

    *  Emperor Valens— himself an Arian — renewed the persecution of Nicene hierarchs.

     *  Theodosius I : effectively wiped out Arianism once and for all among the elites of the Eastern Empire through a combination of imperial decree, persecution, and

     *   Severus of Antioch: is said to have stirred up a fierce religious war among the population of Alexandria, resulting in bloodshed and conflagrations (Labbe, v. 121). To escape punishment for this violence, he fled to Constantinople, supported by a band of two hundred Non-Chalcedonian monks. 


       381 - Second Ecumenical Council of 381: the Orthodox like to forget to mention this was connected to persecuting Arians and others deemed "sects" with violence. expanding the Nicene Creed.



Oxford English Dictionary, quote:

Dark Ages

1 the period in western Europe between the fall of the Roman Empire and the high Middle Ages, c.500–1100 ad, during which Germanic tribes swept through Europe and North Africa, often attacking and destroying towns and settlements. It was judged to have been a time of relative unenlightenment, though scholarship was kept alive in the monasteries and learning was encouraged at the courts of Charlemagne and Alfred the Great.

a period of supposed unenlightenment: a throwback to the dark ages of computing.

• (the dark ages) humorous or derogatory an obscure or little-regarded period in the past, especially as characterizing an outdated attitude or practice: the judge is living in the dark ages.

In the so called "dark ages" people tended to live far more in isolated small communities. This was in fact a time in which communities of Evangelical Christians could far more easily hide from persecution, and their belief of not having idols, or building church buildings, would mean little archaeological evidence would be found to prove their existence.

5th century:

Map showing the paths of invasion by various groups into Eastern and Western Roman territoryThe 5th century involves the final fall of the Western Roman Empire to GothsVandalsAlansHuns, and Franks.

  • 402-419 - Wars with Gothic Tribes:  [show]

  • 450-493 - Fall of the West:

  • 451 AD - Battle of Avarayr  - Armenia versus the Sassanid Empire (around about the time of the reign of Theodosius 2nd in the Eastern Roman Empire) . this is an interesting conflict, and may (some would say obviously) shows the root of the doctrinal differences between the Arminian and other Eastern Orthodox churches.

see YouTube video:

Theodosius 2nd fought the Vandals in North Africa, Attila the Hun, and was forced to face the Sassanid Empire too.  

(The only thing I disagree with in all these baz battle type secular historian videos is the general term "Christian" applied to pre schism warlike pseudo christians, and Catholics and Orthodox later. Constantine infected the Faith with the "scarlet and purple heresy" of Revelation 17, that is melding secular (purple) and religious (scarlet) power together, bringing war into the Faith, when Jesus taught Peace and Love and banned war. This will perhaps lead to never discussing the persecution of true Christian pacifists under Constantine, their dispersal to avoid persecution, and the re-emergence from hiding in the Reformation Era, and at the time of the Lollards. )

6th century:

502-503 - Siege of Amida  - The Persians captured the city of Amida.​

7th century:

8th century:

According to the traditional view, Byzantine Iconoclasm was started by a ban on religious images by Emperor Leo III and continued under his successors. It was accompanied by widespread destruction of images and persecution of supporters of the veneration of images.

9th century:

10th century:

11th century:

      1095–1099 - First Crusade:  Pope Urban Preaches The First Crusade (1095) In response to requests from the Byzantine Empire for mercenaries to help them fight the Sejuk Turks, who had overrun the heart of Asia Minor and taken much of the Holy Land in the decades after defeating the Byzantines at Manzikert in 1071, Pope Urban II (1088–1099) called for an armed pilgrimage to Jerusalem to free the Holy Land from the hands of the Saracens.

12th century:


      1101 - Crusade of 1101:

      Post-Crusade of 1101:

     1145–1149 - Second Crusade

     Post-Second Crusade:

    1163–1169 - Crusader invasions of Egypt:

      1189–1192 - Third Crusade:

       1197 - Crusade of 1197:

13th century:

     1202–1204-  Fourth Crusade

       1209–1229 - The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France

       12:12 - The Children's Crusade: (there are said to have been more than one of these tragic crusades.)

       1217–1221- Fifth Crusade

       1228–1229 - Sixth Crusade

       1239 - The Barons' Crusade: broadly spanned from 1234-1241.

       1248 – 1254 - Seventh Crusade:

       1270 - Eighth Crusade:

       1271 – 1271 -  Ninth Crusade:

14th century:

15th century:

  • 1411 – Siege of Constantinople – Ottomans besiege Constantinople

  • 1419-1434 Hussite Wars, Battle of Lipany- European Wars of Religion DOCUMENTARY


  • Although the Catholic Church and the Pope had a dominant presence in the European politics, they were not unchallenged and the Western Schism allowed many movements to arise in Europe. The works of the English philosopher and theologian John Wycliffe influenced many, among them Jan Hus of Bohemia. His supporters- the Hussites soon took over the country and kept the whole of Central Europe in fear for 15 years. Five Crusades were conducted against them, led by the Hungarian king Sigismund I, but the Taborites under Jan Zizka (Žižka) won many battles (Vitkov Hill, Kutna Hora, Vysehrad, and others) using their famous Wagenburg tactics. The Hussites were only defeated at the battle of Lipany (1434) when two main groups within the movement (Taborites and Utraquists) faced each other. The Hussite Wars were important, as they became the harbinger of the Reformation and the European Wars of Religion.

  • 5 HUSSITE CRUSADES (from Pope).

  • 1420 -  The 1st Hussite Crusade. Pope Martin V, issued a bull on 17 March 1420 - proclaiming a crusade "for the destruction of the Wycliffites, Hussites and all other heretics in Bohemia".  (Please notice the warper historical emphasis on the Hussies when many pre-Reformation Protestants were in fact also the target). The Siege of Prague. (see Battle of Vyšehrad).  the Battle of Sudoměř: (25 March 1420), Sigismund was defeated at the Battle of Vítkov Hill on July 1420.

  • 1421 - The 2nd Anti-Hussite Crusade: Sigismund took possession of the town of Kutná Hora but was decisively defeated by Jan Žižka at the Battle of Deutschbrod (Německý Brod) on 6 January 1422. (Civil war in Bohemia - Jan Želivský beheaded).

  • 1422 - The 3rd Hussite Crusade: Popacy calls for a new 3rd crusade against Bohemia, but it resulted in complete failure, After several military successes gained by Žižka in 1423 and the following year, a treaty of peace between the Hussite factions was concluded on 13 September 1424 at Libeň, a village near Prague, now part of that city.

  • 1426 - 1427 - The 4th Hussite Crusade: Hussite forces, led by Prokop and Sigismund Korybut, signally defeated the invaders in the Battle of Aussig. Pope Martin V, to believe that the Hussites were much weakened. Martin proclaimed yet another crusade in 1427. He appointed Cardinal Henry Beaufort of England as Papal Legate of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, to lead the crusader forces.. The crusaders were defeated at the Battle of Tachov. But after a few years, Korybut returned to Poland with his men. Korybut and his Poles, however, did not really want to leave; but the Pope threatened to call a crusade against Poland if they did not.

  • 1431 - 1439. The 5th Hussite Crusade: n 1 August 1431 a large army of crusaders under Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg, accompanied by Cardinal Cesarini as papal legate, crossed the Bohemian border. On 8 August the crusaders reached the city of Domažlice and began besieging it. On 14 August, a Hussite relief army arrived, reinforced with some 6,000 Polish Hussites and under the command of Prokop the Great, and it completely routed the crusaders at the resulting Battle of Domažlice. As the legend has it, upon seeing the Hussite banners and hearing their battle hymn, "Ktož jsú boží bojovníci" ("Ye Who are Warriors of God"), the invading Papal forces immediately took to flight.

  • In 1434 war again broke out between the Utraquists and the Taborites. On 30 May 1434, the Taborite army, led by Prokop the Great and Prokop the Lesser, who both fell in the battle, was totally defeated and almost annihilated at the Battle of Lipany.

  • The Polish Hussite movement also came to an end. Polish royal troops under Władysław III of Varna defeated the Hussites at the Battle of Grotniki in 1439, bringing the Hussite Wars to an end.

  • 1453 – Fall of Constantinople – Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II captures Constantinople, ending the Byzantine Empire

  • 1461 – Siege of Trebizond – Sultan Mehmed II captures Trebizond, ending the Empire of Trebizond

  • 1475 - The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) was fought on 10 January 1475, between Stephen III (Catholic) of Moldavia and the Ottoman governor of Rumelia (Muslim), Hadım Suleiman Pasha. Stephen inflicted a decisive defeat on the Ottomans, described as "the greatest ever secured by the Cross (???) against Islam," with casualties, according to Venetian and Polish records, reaching beyond 40,000 on the Ottoman side.

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