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Orthodox Theologists

CHURCH FATHERS Until John of Damascus :


Adrian the monk of Antioch wrote a manual on the Antiochene method of Scriptural exegesis[1]


Alexander of Alexandria[2]326 


Alexander of Lycopolis4th century 


Ambrose of Milan397one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church; strongly opposed Arianism


Amphilochius of Iconium[1][2]403 or earlier 


Ananias of Shirak[2][3]7th centurywrote a work on Christmas and one on Easter


Anastasius Sinaita[1][2]7th century 


Andrew of Caesarea[1]6th centurycommented on the Apocalypse


Andrew of Crete[2]8th centuryauthor of the 250-strophe Great Canon


Anthony the Great[1]356 


Aphraates367Mesopotamian bishop who authored 23 homilies[1]


Apollinaris of Hirapolis2nd century 


Apollinaris of Laodicea390 


Apollonius of Ephesus210 


Apringius of Beja6th centurycommented on the Apocalypse[4]

Archelaus supposedly a bishop of Carchar who wrote against Manichaeism


Aristides the Athenian[1][2]134 


Aristo of Pella[1]2nd century 


Arnobius[1]330author of Against the Heathen


Arsenius the Great445 


Asterius of Amasea[2]405wrote sermons on morality including topics like divorce and covetousness, and the parables of Jesus Christ


Athanasius373one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church


Athenagoras of Athens[1]190wrote in defense of the resurrection of the dead[2]




Augustine of Hippo430one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church (Doctor Gratiae)


Aurelius Prudentius[1][2]early 5th centurycommented on the Psalms[5]




Avitus of Vienne[1]523author of the five-book poem De spiritualis historiae gestis; converted King

Sigismund; combated Arianism




Barsanuphius of Palestine540 


Basil the Great of Caesarea379one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church and one of the Three Holy Hierarchs; father of monachism


Bede[1]735Doctor of the Church and author of Ecclesiastical History of the English People


Benedict of Nursia[1][2]547best known for the Rule of St Benedict


Boethius[2]520sauthor of Consolation of Philosophy


Braulio of Zaragoza651commented on the Psalms[5]


Caesarius of Arles[1]542commented on the Apocalypse


Caius3rd century 




Chromatius[2]407wrote sermons on the Gospel of Matthew


Clement of Alexandria210s 


99 AD - Clement of Rome

1 Epistle of Clement -

2 Epistle of Clement -

1 Epistle on Virginity - how can they be 99AD if they contain the chapter/verse numerals only added 

quote "The chapter divisions commonly used today were developed by Stephen Langton, an Archbishop of Canterbury. Langton put the modern chapter divisions into place in around A.D. 1227. The Wycliffe English Bible of 1382 was the first Bible to use this chapter pattern. "

2 Epistle on Virginity - Two "Epistles on Virginity" were traditionally attributed to Clement, but now there exists almost universal consensus that Clement was not the author of those two epistles.[25] so in that case that proves "church tradition" fallible.

The False Decretals - A 9th-century collection of church legislation known as the False Decretals, which was once attributed to Saint Isidore of Seville, is largely composed of forgeries. All of what it presents as letters of pre-Nicene popes, beginning with Clement, are forgeries, as are some of the documents that it attributes to councils;[26] and more than forty falsifications are found in the decretals that it gives as those of post-Nicene popes from Pope Sylvester I (314–335) to Pope Gregory II (715–731). The False Decretals were part of a series of falsifications of past legislation by a party in the Carolingian Empire whose principal aim was to free the church and the bishops from interference by the state and the metropolitan archbishops respectively.[27][28][29]

Main article: Pseudo-Isidore

quote "Clement is included among other early Christian popes as authors of the Pseudo-Isidoran (or False) Decretals, a 9th-century forgery. These decrees and letters portray even the early popes as claiming absolute and universal authority.[30] Clement is the earliest pope to whom a text is attributed." In other words.... they are forgeries designed to falsify that early Popes claimed the false authority as present ones, AND their false church structure of so called authority...


""These early documents were designed to show that by the oldest traditions and practice of the Church no bishop might be deposed, no Church councils might be convened, and no major issue might be decided, without the consent of the pope. Even the early pontiffs, by these evidences, had claimed absolute and universal authority as vicars of Christ on Earth." Durant, Will. The Age of Faith. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972. p. 525"

Coelius Sedulius[1]5th century 


Columba of Iona[1][2]597 


Commodianus3rd century 


Cyprian of Carthage[1]258 


Cyril of Alexandria444Doctor of the Church (Doctor Incarnationis) combated the Nestorianheresy


Cyril of Jerusalem386Doctor of the Church who wrote thorough instructions to catechumens and baptized Christians[1]


Didymus the Blind[1]398teacher of Jerome and Rufinus; follower of Origen; opponent of Arianism and the Macedonian heresy; works condemned at the Fifth Ecumenical Council and the Sixth Ecumenical Council


Diodore of Tarsus[1]390 


Dionysius of Corinth[1]2nd century 


Dionysius the Areopagite1st centuryWritings attributed to him are thought to have been faked by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite.


Ephrem the Syrian373Doctor of the Church


Epiphanius of Salamis403friend of Jerome who strongly opposed Origenism and wrote a history of heresies


Eucherius of Lyon[1][2]449 


Eugippius[3]6th century 


Eusebius of Caesarea339 


Eusebius of Emesa360commented on Genesis[6]


Eusebius of Vercelli[1]371 




Fulgentius of Ruspe6th century 


Gaius Marius Victorinus4th centurycombated Arianism[1]


Gennadius of Massilia[1]496 


Gregory of Nazianzus389one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church; one of three Orthodoxsaints honored with the title "The Theologian;" one of the Three Holy Hierarchs


Gregory of Nyssa394 


Gregory of Tours[2]594 


Gregory Thaumaturgus270 


Hegesippus of Palestine[1]180a Jewish convert who combated Gnosticism and Marcionism


Hermias[2]3rd century 


Hesychius of Jerusalem5th century 


Hilary of Poitiers367Doctor of the Church


Hippolytus of Rome[1][2]235 


Ignatius of Antioch107 


Irenaeusend of 2nd or beginning of 3rd century 


Isaac of Nineveh700ascetic author of many spiritual homilies who commented on the Psalms[5] and contributed significantly to Syrian piety; was not Christologically Nestorian[7]


Isidore of Pelusium449author of 2000 letters dealing primarily with allegorical exegesis[1]


Isidore of Seville[1][2]636Doctor of the Church


Jacob of Serugh[3][5][8]521a.k.a. Mar Jacob


Jerome420one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church


John Cassian[1][8]435 


John Chrysostom407one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church and one of the Three

Holy Hierarchs


John Climacus[8]606 


John of Damascus749Doctor of the Church and author of An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith and ascetic and exegetical writings and hymns; Peter Lombardbased his Four Books of Sentences on the works of John of Damascus and Thomas Aquinas based his Summa

Theologica on Peter Lombard's Sentences


Julianus Pomerius[1]5th centuryauthor of De Vita Contemplativaconcerning Christian sanctity


Julius Firmicus Maternus4th century 


Justin Martyr165 


Juvencus[1]4th century 




Leontius of Byzantium[1]543 


Lucian of Antioch[1]312 


Lucifer[1]370combated Arianism and defended Athanasius at the Council of Milan in 354


Macarius of Alexandria[8]395 


Macarius of Egypt[8]391 


Malchion3rd century?played key role in the deposition of Paul of Samosata


Marcus Minucius Felix[1][8]250author of Octavianus


Marius Mercator451made a compilation on Nestorianismand another on Pelagianism[1]


Martin of Bruga4th centurycommented on the Psalms[5]


Martin of Tours[8]397 


Mathetes2nd century?author of an Epistle to Diognetus


Maximus of Turin[1]465 


Maximus the Confessor[1][8]662 


Meletius of Antioch[8]381 


Melito of Sardis180author of an important sermon called On Pascha about the Resurrection of Jesus Christ


Methodius of Olympus[1][8]311combated Origenism


Moses of Chorene490author of A History of Armenia


Nectarius of Constantinople[8]398 


Nicetas of Remesiana414the patron saint of Romania commented on the Psalms[5]


Nilus of Sinai430 


Nonnus5th century 


Novatian[1]258commented on the Psalms[5]


Oecumenius6th centuryauthor of the first extant Greekcommentary on the Apocalypse[4]


Optatus4th centurycombated Donatism[1]


Origen of Alexandria254posthumously anathematized at Fifth Ecumenical Council (533)




Pachomius[1][8]348Father of Christian cenobitic monasticism


Pacian of Barcelona[8]391combated Novatianism


Palladius of Helenopolis[1][8]5th century 


Pamphilus of Caesarea309 


Pantamus214first to make the Catechetical school of Alexandria famous[1]


Papias[8]155disciple of John the Evangelist and Ariston[1]


Patrick[8]5th century 


Paulinus of Nola[8]431 


Peter Chrysologus450Doctor of the Church


Philip the priest commented on the Book of Job


Philoxenus of Hierapolis[3]6th centuryauthor of 13 ascetic discourses who

combated NestorianismManichaeism, and Marcionism


Poemen450commented on the Psalms[5]




Pope Damasus I384 


Pope Dionysius of Rome[1]268combated Sabellianism


Pope Dionysius the Great of Alexandria265 


Pope Gregory I the Great604one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church and author of Dialogues


Pope Leo I the Great461Doctor of the Church


Pope Peter of Alexandria311 


Pope Zephyrinus217commented on the Psalms


Proclus of Constantinople440s 




Prosper of Aquitaine[1]455 


Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite6th centuryauthor of The Divine Names, The Mystical Theology, The Celestial Hierarchy, The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, and the non-extant Theological Outlines; quoted extensively in the Summa Theologicaof Thomas Aquinas


Quadratus of Athens[1]129wrote a non-extant apology to Emperor Hadrian


Rabbula[3][9]435ascetic and energetic bishop of Edessa and ally of Cyril of Alexandria who opposed the heretical teachings of Nestorius


Romanos the Melodist[9]556


Sahdona649commented on the Psalms[5]


Salvian[1][9]490sGallic author of On the government of God


Severian of Gabala408commented on Genesis[6] and the First and Second Epistle to the Corinthians


Severus of Antioch[3][9]538 


Sextus Julius Africanus[1][8]240 


Sidonius Apollinaris[1][9]489 


Socrates of Constantinople5th century 






Sulpicius Severus[9]425disciple and biographer of Martin of Tours and author of an Ecclesiastical History[1]


Synesius of Syrene[1][9]414 




Tertullian222died a Montanist


Theodore of Mopsuestia[1]428commented on Acts of the Apostlesand the First and Second

Epistle to the Corinthians


Theodoret of Cyrus457continuator of Eusebius of Caesarea[1]


Theodotus of Ancyra4th century 


Theophilus of Antioch[1]180sfirst writer known to have used the term Trinity to describe the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit




Tichonius390commented on the Apocalypse; his seven principles of interpretation from his Book of Rules inspired Augustine of Hippo [4]


Tyrannius Rufinus410friend of Jerome and continuator of Eusebius of Caesarea[1] who commented on the Psalms[5]


Valerian of Cimiez460commented on the Psalms[5]


Venantius Fortunatus7th centurywrote a poem on Easter


Victor of Antioch commented on the Gospel of Mark[1]


Victorinus of Pettau303author of On the Creation of the Worldand a Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John


Vincent of Lérins450 


Zeno of Verona

Early Church Fathers .

What you will eventually see from Orthodoxy is the devil's tactic (used in the Talmud) of confusing you with so many writings by so many people to study that you are distracted from the Word of God, that is declared infallible. The vile notion of Orthodoxy and Catholicism is that the "Laity" need to check out so many writers. theologists, and lives of saints to verify they are on the right path eternal life become for intellectuals only, but the Protestant and Evangelical (that is real Christians) view is that the gospel that saves is simple and is therefore for all, and needs no complex explanation, or to wait in line in a catechumen queue to be verified for eternal life by a cigarette smoking whisky drinking fake priest, directing you to read 500 history books.

as claimed by the Orthodox as Orthodox or "Apostolic Catholic" who were often no such thing. What the Orthodox fail to grasp is there were plenty of named heretic cults in the new testament itself, including the Judaisers, the Antinomianists, and the Nicolaitans (them) and that some early teachers were in fact the seed sowers of the "Higher than the laity" heresy of Nicolaitan Sacerdotalism.

(under construction)

1st Century :

all churches include the following:

11 of the 12 Disciple :

This is where the deception begins!!! The "laity" is tricked into accepting all sorts of legends, tales and traditional stories and "add-ons" about the 12 Disciples, paving the way to later invent the almost 100% fiction life stories of the early fake bishops in the line of "apostolic succession" in the 2nd and 3rd Centuries, thus "proving" a line of decent. The forgery of junk history actually involves also falsifying Luke making the first icon, and other disciples writing and using liturgies.


Bartholomew or Nathanael
James, the Younger (or Lesser)
(Judas) x
Jude or Thaddeus or Lebbeus (a man of 3 names)
Matthew or Levi
Simon the Zealot

New Testament authors :









(Book of Hebrews - no agreement or certainty on author)

Apostles mentioned in scripture .


if we discount Judas

The 12 Apostles = Jesus (Hebrews 3:1) and the 11 Apostles.



1) Paul - Acts 14:14

2) James, the half brother of Jesus - Galatians 1:19

3) Barnabas - Acts 14:14

4) Apollos - Corinthians 4:6-9

5) Timothy - I Thessalonians 1:1 and 2:6

6) Silvanus - I Thessalonians 1:1 and 2:6


7) Epaphroditus? Philippians 2:25.  

8) Anonymous apostle  1? - 2 Corinthians 8:23. 

9) Anonymous Apostle 2? - 2 Corinthians 8:23.

10) Andronicus? - Romans 16:7

11) Junia? - Romans 16:7.   Of great controversy and debate as this gives a female Apostle, the highest position of authority on the list of ministries (Eph 4:11) when normally in both the Protestant, Catholic and all forms of Orthodoxy women are not Pastor type figures, though the Orthodox do have kinds of female ministries, as do some Protestant churches.

If we discount Epaphroditus, two anonymous, Andronicus and Junia. then that is 12 + 6 = 18 proven new testament Apostles, "The 17 Apostles" being the others beside Jesus . 


Easter Orthodox add their fictitious "70 Apostles" .

(the scripture "other 70" Luke 10:1 are not at the high status of apostles, or doubtless they would be given by name,  but simply appointed helpers in Evangelism.)

The reason for the "70 Apostles" deception is that Eastern Orthodoxy is based on an heretical concept of not leaving the old law quote "done away" but in a form of semi-Judaising heresy to cherry pick old testament law, practices and traditions and add them to new testament law, creating their own potpourri or syncretic new religion, that is actually witchcraft (as is explain in Galatians "Who has bewitched you?" and Revelation "For by thy sorceries were all nations deceived"). In order to do this an imitation of the heretical religion of modern Judaism was necessary, where the 70 elders are supposed to have the same power to give law as Moses did, and so to reinforce their deception they create a fictitious list of other Apostles to have the number 70 available to compare with the 70 Elders of the Sanhedrin of the old testament.

2nd Century :

include the collection known as the Apostolic Fathers (mostly 2nd century)


Justin Martyr (c. 100/114–c. 162/168)

Clement of Alexandria (died c. 215)

Irenaeus of Lyons (c. 130–202)



'Gnostic' authors .  (obviously rejected by Orthodoxy)

Marcion (c. 85-c. 160),

Valentinius (c. 100–c. 153) 

Basilides (c. 117–138)



Some of the texts commonly referred to as the New Testament apocrypha.

Influential texts and writers between c. 200 and 325 (the First Council of Nicaea) include:


Tertullian (c. 155–230)

Hippolytus (died 235)

Origen (c. 182–c. 251)

Cyprian (died c. 258)

Arius (256–336)



Other Gnostic texts and texts from the New Testament apocrypha.


First Council of Nicaea .

Nicene Creed .

Main article: Nicene Creed

Each phrase in the Nicene Creed, which was hammered out at the Council of Nicaea, addresses some aspect that had been under passionate discussion and closes the books on the argument, with the weight of the agreement of the over 300 bishops in attendance. [Constantine had invited all 1800 bishops of the Christian church (about 1000 in the east and 800 in the west). The number of participating bishops cannot be accurately stated; Socrates Scholasticus and Epiphanius of Salamis counted 318; Eusebius of Caesarea, only 250.] In spite of the agreement reached at the council of 325 the Arians who had been defeated dominated most of the church for the greater part of the 4th century, often with the aid of Roman emperors who favored them.



Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers .

Influential texts and writers between AD 325 and c. 500 include:


Athanasius (298–373)

The Cappadocian Fathers (late 4th century)

Ambrose (c. 340–397)

Jerome (c. 347–420)

Chrysostom (347–407)

Augustine of Hippo (354–430)

Cyril of Alexandria (376–444)


Ecumenical Councils .

Nicaea in 325 ,

Constantinople in 381 ,

Ephesus in 431 .

Chalcedon in 451 .



Papacy and primacy .

The forgery of the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals had a massive effect on history, fooling millions (even after being discredited) into thinking the Early Church accepted Peter as the Rock of the church, when in Greek Peter calls Jesus the Christ, and Jesus replies "You are a stone, and on this Rock (the Christ) I will build my church.

Early heresies .

The Judaizers

Nicolaitans (the Orthodox and Roman Catholics)




Medieval Christian theology .

Byzantine theology .

While the Western Roman Empire declined and fell, the Eastern Roman Empire, centred on Constantinople, remained standing until 1453, and was the home of a wide range of theological activity that was seen as standing in strong continuity with the theology of the Patristic period; indeed the division between Patristic and Byzantine theology would not be recognised by many Orthodox theologians and historians.

Gregory Palamas



Mystical theology .

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (working c. 500)

Symeon the New Theologian (949–1022)

Gregory Palamas (1296–1359)


Council of Chalcedon .

Christological controversy after Chalcedon .

Severus of Antioch (c. 465–518)

Leontius of Jerusalem (working 538–544)

Maximus the Confessor (c. 580–682)

John of Damascus

Iconoclasts and iconophiles .

Patriarch Germanus I of Constantinople (patriarch 715–730)

John of Damascus (676–749)

Theodore the Studite (c. 758–c. 826)



Heresies .








Bosnian Church






Free Spirit


Henry the Monk












Muhammadism (Islam)







Peter of Bruis





Semi-pelagianism in Roman Catholicism (Orthodox is semi-Pelagian)


Ultramontanism in Orthodoxy




Western theology .

Before the Carolingian Empire .

Caesarius of Arles (c. 468–542)

Boethius (480–524)

Cassiodorus (c. 480–c. 585)

Pope Gregory I (c. 540–604)

Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636)

Bede (672–736)



Theology in the time of Charlemagne .

Alcuin (c. 735–804)

The Spanish Adoptionists Felix of Urgel and Elipandus of Toledo (late 8th century)

Rabanus Maurus (c. 780–856)

Radbertus (c. 790–865)

Ratramnus (died c. 868)

Hincmar (806–882)

Gottschalk (c. 808–c. 867)

Johannes Scotus Eriugena (c. 815–877)



Before Scholasticism .

Heiric of Auxerre (c. 835–887)

Remigius of Auxerre (c. 841–908)

Gerbert of Aurillac (c. 950–1003)

Fulbert of Chartres (died 1028)

SCHISM OF 1054 .

Berengar of Tours (c. 999–1088)

Lanfranc (died 1089)


Scholasticism .

Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means "that [which] belongs to the school", and was a method of learning taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities c. 1100–1500. Scholasticism originally began to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology. It is not a philosophy or theology in itself, but a tool and method for learning which puts emphasis on dialectical reasoning. The primary purpose of scholasticism was to find the answer to a question or resolve a contradiction. It is best known in its application in medieval theology, but was eventually applied to classical philosophy and many other fields of study.



Early scholasticism and its contemporaries .

Anselm of Canterbury (1033/1034–1109)

Anselm of Laon (died 1117)

Hugh of St Victor (1078–1151)

Peter Abelard (1079–1142)

Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153)

Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179)

Peter Lombard (c. 1100–1160)

Joachim of Fiore (c. 1135–1202)



High Scholasticism and its contemporaries .

Saint Dominic (1170–1221)

Robert Grosseteste (c. 1175–1253)

Francis of Assisi (1182–1226)

Alexander of Hales (died 1245)

Mechthild of Magdeburg (1210–1285)

Roger Bacon (1214–1294)

Bonaventure (1221–1274)

Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274)

Angela of Foligno (1248–1309)

of interest to Protestants

Late Scholasticism and its contemporaries .

Scholastic theology continued to develop as the 13th century gave way to the fourteenth, becoming ever more complex and subtle in its distinctions and arguments. The 14th century saw in particular the rise to dominance of the nominalist or voluntarist theologies of men like William of Ockham. The 14th century was also a time in which movements of widely varying character worked for the reform of the institutional church, such as conciliarismLollardy and the Hussites. Spiritual movements such as the Devotio Moderna also flourished.  Catherine of Siena .

Notable authors include:


sources 1) wiki - History of Christian Theology .

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