PRE SCHISM - Byzantine wars and battles

right hand 2.png

1st Century: (AD 1 to AD 100)

The Persecution of proto Christians.

There is no equivalent of King David slaying goliath in the early church, or Jonathan fighting an entire army on his own, or Samson slaying 1,000 men single handed, or a Gideon winning battles with small numbers of men, or any other generals and "heroes" like Joshua. There was much persecution but no evidence of fighting wars against their persecutors. The instruction of Jesus what to do in the 70 AD Siege of Jerusalem was "flee to the mountains" (Luke 13:14) even if you see this as a dual prophecy linked to the end times.

The history of violence you will see in this long historical study, by Roman Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and their pre-schism / post Constantine ancestors, has nothing to do with the true "Peace and Love" teachings of Jesus.

The Persecution of early Christians by the Jews (Acts 7).

9 AD      Battle of the Teutoburg Forest 

16 AD    Battle of the Weser River (The Battle of Idistaviso)

43-96    Roman conquest of Britain 

58-63    Roman–Parthian War of 58–63

60-61    Boudica's uprising 

 

66-73    First Jewish–Roman War ) [1]

70 AD - Siege of Jerusalem (leading eventually to the  2nd diaspora - the first diaspora was Israel in Captivity in Assyrian who later dispersed across the globe (some say settling in Britain and the USA), now Judah and Benjamin). This is to be distinguished from the Captivity in Babylon that did not lead to a diaspora, as they returned home.

68-69    Roman Civil War of 68-69 AD

83 ADThe Battle of Mons Graupius .

86-88    Domitian's Dacian War  ,


2nd Century: (AD 101 to AD 200)

The Persecution of early Christians by the Romans.

(the Ichthus Period)

(101-102)​   First Dacian War 

(105-106)   Second Dacian War 

.                  Roman-Persian Wars 

(115-117)   Kitos War 

(132-135/136)  Second Jewish Revolt 

(166-180)         Marcomannic Wars 

(193-197)   Roman Civil War of 193-197 AD .

3rd Century: (AD 201 - AD  300)

170-235 - First PopeHippolytus of Rome  is commonly considered to be the earliest antipope, as he headed a separate group within the Church in Rome against Pope Callixtus I. As popes as we know them never existed it might be argued he invented the idea of a Pope? (speculation). The Eastern Orthodox believers will almost all insist no such person as a Pope as we know them today existed before the Great Schism or close to it. 

184-205 - Yellow Turban Rebellion

250? - Novatian: also described as an antipope (but popes as we know them never even existed then) persecutes those desiring to repent of idolatry when under threat of death by Emperor Decius in AD 250. Ironically if he claimed to be a leader of the Universal church some might argue the concept of a Pope began with him.

250 – 336 = Arius (the heresy of Arianism was a big influence on history)

285 - The Division of the Roman Empire Emperor by Diocletian: the Roman Empire had grown so vast that it was no longer feasible to govern all the provinces from the central seat of Rome. The Emperor Diocletian divided the empire into halves with the Eastern Empire governed out of Byzantium (later Constantinople) and the Western Empire governed from Rome. This fact is included because of its probable inevitable connection to the later division in so called Christendom. 

Persian wars .

217 – Battle of Nisibis – Bloody stalemate between the Parthians and the Roman army under Emperor Macrinus.

 

243 – Battle of Resaena – Roman forces under Gordian III defeat the Persians under Shapur I.

 

260 – Battle of Edessa – Emperor Shapur I of Persia defeats and captures the Roman Emperor Valerian

 

296 or 297 – Battle of Carrhae – Romans under the Caesar Galerius are defeated by the Persians under Narseh.

 

298 – Battle of Satala – Galerius secures a decisive victory against Narseh, following a peace treaty.

Civil wars .

218,  – Battle of Antioch – Varius Avitus defeats Emperor Macrinus to claim the throne under the name Elagabalus.

 

238 – Battle of Carthage – Troops loyal to the Roman Emperor Maximinus Thrax defeat and kill his successor Gordian II.

 

274 – Battle of Châlons – Aurelian defeats the Gallic usurper Tetricus, reestablishing central control of the whole empire.

 

285 – Battle of the Margus – The usurper Diocletian defeats the army of the Emperor Carinus, who is killed.

.

Gothic and Alemannic wars .

235 – Battle at the Harzhorn - Small Roman army defeats a German army while retreating back to Roman territory.

 

250 – Battle of Philippopolis – King Cniva of the Goths defeats a Roman army.

 

251, Summer – Battle of Abrittus – Goths defeat and kill the Roman Emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus

 

259 – Battle of Mediolanum – Emperor Gallienus decisively defeats the Alemanni that invaded Italy

 

268 – Battle of Naissus – Emperor Gallienus and his generals Claudius and Aurelian decisively defeat the Goths.

 

268 or 269 – Battle of Lake Benacus – Romans under Emperor Claudius II defeat the Alemanni .

  • 271 –

    • Battle of Placentia – Emperor Aurelian is defeated by the Alemanni forces invading Italy

    • Battle of Fano – Aurelian defeats the Alamanni, who begin to retreat from Italy

    • Battle of Pavia – Aurelian destroys the retreating Alemanni army.

Palmyrene war ,

272 – Battle of Immae – Aurelian defeats the army of Zenobia of Palmyra

272 – Battle of Emesa – Aurelian decisively defeats Zenobia.

.

285 - Emperor Diocletian splits the Roman Empire in 2 as it was too big to manage from one Governing point, one half generally reading Latin, the other predominantly influenced by Greek.

4th century: (AD 301 to AD 400)

​The 4th century begins with civil war resulting in the ascendancy of 

Constantine I, then, after his death, wars with Persia and Germanic tribes, punctuated frequently with more civil wars.

BEGINNING WITH CONSTANTINE - WHO BROUGHT THE "SCARLET AND PURPLE HERESY" OF REVELATION 17 MELDING CHURCH AND STATE:

 

   *   Constantine's: persecution of Arians.

   *   Violence in the reign of Constantius II. When Paul, the "orthodox" bishop of Constantinople, was banished by imperial decree, a riot broke out that resulted in 3000 deaths

   *   Monks in Alexandria: were the first to gain a reputation for violence and cruelty.

   *   At Ephesus, a fight broke out in a council of bishops resulting in one of them being murdered. Gibbon's assessment was that "the bonds of civil society were torn asunder by the fury of religious factions." Gregory of Nazianzus lamented that the Kingdom of heaven had been converted into the "image of hell" by religious discord.

   *  Athanasius of Alexandria (so called saint): -  Richard Rubenstein and Timothy Barnes allege he practiced the suppression of the dissent through violence and murder.

    *  Julian the Apostate: tried  to restore paganism in the empire.

    *  Emperor Valens— himself an Arian — renewed the persecution of Nicene hierarchs.

     *  Theodosius I : effectively wiped out Arianism once and for all among the elites of the Eastern Empire through a combination of imperial decree, persecution, and

     *   Severus of Antioch: is said to have stirred up a fierce religious war among the population of Alexandria, resulting in bloodshed and conflagrations (Labbe, v. 121). To escape punishment for this violence, he fled to Constantinople, supported by a band of two hundred Non-Chalcedonian monks. 

(constructing these....)
 

312 - The Battle of the Milvian Bridge = took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I  and Maxentius on 28 October 312. Reports differ but Constantine supposedly saw a cross of light in the sky (a common effect)  with "In this sign you will conquer" written over it, so he ordered his troops to put the first two letters of Christ's name on their shields. It is with this man Constantine that the scarlet and purple heresy of Revelation 17 is brought into a counterfeit form of the Faith, a sacerdotalist type of churchianity instead of Christianity. 

313      Edict of Milan :

316 - Cibalae, 316

316 - Mardia,

 

317 - Constantine issued an edict threatening death to anyone who disturbed the imperial peace. Donatists persecuted. This may mean the true Christian pacifists who rejected Constantine as a Christian were killed and persecuted. The entire idea of Constantine and the church was a spiritual act of fornication from the start, but not adultery as it was a fake church not the fiancee or bride of God.

quote

"After the Constantinian shift, when other Christians accepted the emperor's decision, the Donatists continued to demonize him. After several attempts at reconciliation, in 317 Constantine issued an edict threatening death to anyone who disturbed the imperial peace; another edict followed, calling for the confiscation of all Donatist church property. Donatus refused to surrender his buildings in Carthage, and the local Roman governor sent troops to deal with him and his followers. Although the historical record is unclear, some Donatists were apparently killed and their clergy exiled."

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donatism

 

324 - Adrianople

324 - the Battle of the Hellespont, - between a Constantinian fleet, led by the eldest son of Constantine ICrispus; and a larger fleet under Licinius' admiral, Abantus (or Amandus). Despite being outnumbered, Crispus won a very complete victory.

324: the Battle of Chrystopolis - between the two Roman emperors  Constantine I  and  Licinius. it is said because Licinius (a former ally of Constantine) persecuted Christians.

Pre Nicene Creed Riots in which quote "Christians were killing Christians" which supposedly resulted in qa need for a unifying Creed to prevent this. I believe the reality was that the new violent sacerdotalists were murdering the Evangelicals who rightly said Constantine was no Christian, and who were probably pointing out sacerdotalism is sorcery, infuriating the first version of what later divided into Catholics and Orthodox.

325 - Emperor Constantine has Licinius I executed.  

325. - Nicene Creed.

Constantine had his eldest son Crispus put to death by poison, and had his wife, the Empress Fausta; killed at the behest of his mother, Helena. Fausta was left to die in an over-heated bath. Their names were wiped from the face of many inscriptions and references to their lives in the literary record were erased. Therefore do you think it is possible this man so fond of erasing things from historical records, might not also have erased from the historical records that pacifist Christians said he was a false Christian, and he had them persecuted and even killed?

330 - Constantine makes Byzantium the new Rome renaming it Constantinople.

338 - Nisibis (1st),

340 - 347? -  Ulfilas: (also known as Ulphilas and Orphila, Wulfila) supposedly spreads the Arian false Gospel (teachings of Arius) to the Goths. (mentioned as it later resulted in much bloodshed).

 

Arianism:

the main heresy denying the divinity of Christ, originating with the Alexandrian priest Arius ( c.250– c.336). Arianism maintained that the son of God was created by the Father and was therefore neither coeternal nor consubstantial with the Father.

344-363 - Wars with Persia:  

344 - Singara

350-351 - Civil War:  

350 - Nisibis (3rd),

351 - Mursa Major,

353 - Mons Seleucus,

359 - Amida,

Wars with Alemanni 

360's  Roman Britain -   Attacks from Picts, Scots, Franks, Saxons.

 

363 - Pirisabora,

363 - Maogamalcha,

363 - Ctesiphon,

363 - Maranga,

363 - Samarra,

366 - Civil War: – Battle of Thyatira – The army of the Roman emperor Valens defeats the usurper Procopius.

369 - Noviodunum,

370  the violent persecution of the Priscillianist sect of ascetics.

371. Saint Martin of Tours becomes a bishop, he was active in the suppression of the remnants of Gallo-Roman religion,

376-382 - Gothic War: - Ermanric leads Greuthungian Goths to war with the Roman Empire, (driven into the wars by Hun attacks pushing them west?) This marks probably the beginning of what is called "The Migration Period" that largely leads to the fall of the Roman Empire.

376  - The Battle of Marcianople or Marcianopolis.

377 - Marcianopolis,

377 - Ad Salices,

378 - Adrianople,

378 -  The Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, - Emperor Valens (a so called Christian) dies in the battle, He had been made Emperor of the Eastern part of the Empire by his brother Emperor Valentinian the Great. Fritigern was said to be a convert Arian Christianity.

380 - Emperor Flavius Theodosius 1st makes (so called) "Christianity" the official state religion of the Roman Empire for the first time.

381 - Second Ecumenical Council of 381: the Orthodox like to forget to mention this was connected to persecuting Arians and others deemed "sects" with violence. expanding the Nicene Creed.

388 - Save,

388 – 400   -  Romans begin to leave Britain. (it is at this point some who interpret the two sons of Joseph in Genesis 38 as Britain and the USA believe the Tribe of Ephraim entered the UK in large numbers.

388 - Civil War: – Battle of the Save – Emperor Theodosius I defeats the usurper Magnus Maximus.

394 - Civil War: – Battle of the Frigidus – Theodosius I defeats and kills the usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast.

395 - Theodosius the Great dies. his two sons, whom he designated as co-emperors  (Arcadius in the east and Honorius in the west) split the Empire through inexperience. 

5th century: (AD 401 to AD 500) .

Map showing the paths of invasion by various groups into Eastern and Western Roman territory The 5th century involves the final fall of the Western Roman Empire to GothsVandalsAlansHuns, and Franks.

 

 

441 Sirmium,

443 Constantinople,

443 Chersonesus,

  • 447-451 - War with the Huns

  • 447 - Utus,

  • 450-493 - Fall of the West:

  • 451 AD - Battle of Avarayr  - Armenia versus the Sassanid Empire (around about the time of the reign of Theodosius 2nd in the Eastern Roman Empire) . 

see YouTube video:

https://youtu.be/8d4FHivSplU

451 - AD - The Battle of the Catalaunian Plains (or Fields),  between a coalition led by the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I. against the Huns and their vassals commanded by their king Attila.

468 - Cape Bon,

470 - 490 - The Western Roman Empire ceases to exist, falling to Germanic Tribes. 

476 AD - Flavius Odoacer deposes the child emperor Romulus Augustulus and became King of Italy (476–493).  traditionally seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Though the real power in Italy was in his hands, it is said he represented himself as the client of the emperor in ConstantinopleZeno

475-476 - Flavius Basiliscus becomes Eastern Roman Emperor supported by Illus..

475-476 - Zeno returns. Illus switched sides, supports Zeno,

479 - Illus, serving Zeno, crushes the dangerous revolt of Marcian  .

488 - Illus supports the revolt of Leontius  against Empress Verina, the revolt fails and Illus is killed.. 

484 - 572 - Samaritan Revolts: Byzantine Empire versus Samaritans.

Theodosius 2nd fought the Vandals in North Africa, Attila the Hun, and was forced to face the Sassanid Empire too.  

(The only thing I disagree with in all these baz battle type secular historian videos is the general term "Christian" applied to pre schism warlike pseudo christians, and Catholics and Orthodox later. Constantine infected the Faith with the "scarlet and purple heresy" of Revelation 17, that is melding secular (purple) and religious (scarlet) power together, bringing war into the Faith, when Jesus taught Peace and Love and banned war. This will perhaps led to never discussing the persecution of true Christian pacifists under Constantine, their dispersal to avoid persecution, and the re-emergence from hiding in the Reformation Era, and at the time of the Lollards. )

492 - Cotyaeum, Emperor Anastasius defeats the rebel  Isaurian army. 

496,  -  Battle of Tolbiac against the Alemanni, at which time, according to Gregory of Tours, Clovis adopted his wife Clotilda's Religion (i.e. Nicene

496  - King Clovis I baptized or/sprinkled - by tradition (no proper proof) On Christmas Day, Clovis I, king of the Franks, converted to the so called "Apostolic Faith", but some say to Arianism in 486. Others phrase it he "became Catholic".

6th century: (AD 501 to AD 600) .

 

THE DARK AGES BEGIN.

THE DARK AGES:

Oxford English Dictionary, quote:

Dark Ages

1 the period in western Europe between the fall of the Roman Empire and the high Middle Ages, c.500–1100 ad, during which Germanic tribes swept through Europe and North Africa, often attacking and destroying towns and settlements. It was judged to have been a time of relative unenlightenment, though scholarship was kept alive in the monasteries and learning was encouraged at the courts of Charlemagne and Alfred the Great. It was judged to have been a time of relative unenlightenment. Essentially it is the time when heathen tribes did most of the killing instead of the pseudo Christians. 

• (the dark ages) OED

humorous or derogatory - an obscure or little-regarded period in the past, especially as characterizing an outdated attitude or practice: the judge is living in the dark ages.

In the so called "dark ages" people tended to live far more in isolated small communities. This was in fact a time in which communities of Evangelical Christians could far more easily hide from persecution, and their belief of not having idols, or building church buildings, would mean little archaeological evidence would be found to prove their existence.

502-503 - Siege of Amida  - The Persians captured the city of Amida.​

502-508 - Anastasian War: The Greeks were involved in this.

503 - Sifrion, 

526-532 - Iberian War:  see Battle of Dara &  Battle of Callinicum

https://youtu.be/9GR_VRMq88Y

531 – Battle of Callinicum – Persian general Azarethes defeats Belisarius

532 - Nika riots:  Against Justinian 1st, Nearly half Constantinople burnt and tens of thousands killed.

https://youtu.be/aP7zbNnrUbo

 

533 -  Battle of Tricamarum – 

537 - Scalas Veteres ,

Antioch, 540

Aurasium, 540

541–542 AD (with recurrences until 750) - Plague of Justinian - killing some estimate between 50 - 75 million. 

541-562 - Lazic War :

551 - Petra, 

551 – Battle of Sena Gallica – Byzantine fleet destroys the Ostrogothic navy.

552 – Battle of Taginae – Narses replaces Belisarius and defeats Ostrogoths under Totila.

553 – Battle of Mons Lactarius Narses defeats the Ostrogoths under Teia.

568-586 - king Liuva I declares brother Liuvigild co-king and heir, (some say oth were Arian Christians.)  perhaps best proven in that Liuvigild  seized Córdoba from the Byzantine Empire.? many battles in this period,

572-591 - Byzantine vs Sassanian war.

580-582 - Sirmium, 


 

NEW TEXT BOX

7th century:  (AD 601 to AD 700).

602-628: Final Byzantine vs Sassanian war.

601- Viminacium, 601

611 - Antioch,

615 - Thessalonica,

622 - HIJIRAH or HEGIRAH Flight of Mohammed to Mecca. (birth of Islam?)

622 - Ophlimos, 

 

650 - Arabs begin to expand and capture Byzantine territory - later taking out Antioch and Alexandria from the churches as now in Muslim hands, leaving only Rome and Constantinople to fight it out for supremacy.

 

655 - Phoenix,

677 - Syllaeum, 

(695–717)   Twenty Years' Anarchy . Justinian II (685–711) set in motion a chain of events by embarking on a despotic and increasingly violent course. His policies met with considerable opposition, eventually provoking a rebellion led by Leontios (695–698) in 695, which deposed and exiled him, precipitating a prolonged period of instability and anarchy, with seven emperors in twenty-two years.[3]


8th century:  (AD 701 to AD 800)

707–708 or 708–709 – Siege of Tyana – Umayyads besiege and capture Tyana

 

708 – Battle of Anchialus (708)   .

711-1491 - The Reconquista of Spain, the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1491

717–718 – Siege of Constantinople – Second and last siege of Constantinople by the Arabs. 

718 - (722? date not clear) - The Battle of Covadonga - Pelagius or Pelayo chose a narrow valley and placed archers atop the ridges, while hiding most of his men in a cave. Some say this was in 1718 and was the true beginning of the Reconquista of Spain. 

721 - The Battle of ToulouseOdo of Aquitaine 

​​726 - "First Iconoclasm",  726 and 787- Empress Irene (really 2 iconoclasms)

According to the traditional view, Byzantine Iconoclasm was started by a ban on religious images by Emperor Leo III and continued under his successors. It was accompanied by widespread destruction of images and persecution of supporters of the veneration of images. (787 - Council of Nicaea II, demand the end of iconoclasm?) .

726 - The trigger for Emperor Leo III’s prohibition of icon's and other idols may have even been the huge volcanic eruption in 726 in the Aegean Sea interpreted as a sign of God’s anger over the veneration of icons.

727 – Siege of Nicaea – Unsuccessful siege of Nicaea by the Arabs

732 - The battle of Tours

By A.D. 732, the Umayyad Caliphate was led by Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, who reigned over the the fifth largest empire ever to exist. The total force for the invasion may have numbered 80,000, although probably only around 10,000–30,000 were involved at Tours. The Franks were led by Charles Martel, Latin for “the Hammer.” He was able to muster an army of 15,000–20,000.

751 - Papal States founded - Lombards capture Ravenna from the Empire (the last Eastern Empire holding in the North of Italy) threatening to attack Rome, So the Italians asked the Franks in France and Germany for help not the Byzantines, and Pepin III the Short (the Carolingians)  who helped expel the Lombards, then giving the strip of land from Ravenna to Rome that belonged to the Byzantines to the Papacy, laying the foundation of the Papal states.

see youtube video....

Great Schism: The Bitter Rivalry Between Greek and Latin Christianity .

771-804 - The Saxon Wars.

A series of campaigns waged over nearly 30 years and 18 major battles. These wars concluded with Saxony incorporated into the Frankish Empire, and the pagan Saxons forced by Charlemagne to accept sacerdotalist pseudo Christianity. 

Charlemagne (also called Charles the Great or Charles I) was supposedly "Christian" but prior to being crowned Emperor was involved in much war. Hardly the pacifism claimed to be Orthodox. 

 

778 AD -  The Battle of Roncevaux Pass

 

797 Empress Irene has her own son's eyes gouged out, and snatches full power as Empress for herself in Eastern Rome, destroying co-rulership. (ending iconoclasm???). She did not realise that by snatching power for herself alone, a woman, without a make co-ruler, this would give the Pope the excuse to create a second Northern Empire. But Empress Irene was prevented from war with the Pope by troubles with the Bulgars and Arabs.


9th century:  (AD 801 to AD 900) .

​800 - On Christmas Day Charlemagne was crowned emperor by the pope (of a new western Holy Roman Empire - as the Pope said a female Empress Irene was no true ruler) . His coronation legitimized Charlemagne's rule over the former Roman empire in W Europe and finalized the split between the Byzantine and Roman Empires. After years of negotiation and war, Charlemagne received recognition from the Byzantine emperor Michael I in 812.

​​

802 - Empress Irene deposed. But two Roman Emperors now still existed.

824 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass

830-831 - Palermo, 

838 - Dazimon, 

859 - Castrogiovanni, 859

  • 862 – Capture of Faruriyyah – Abbasids capture the border fortress of Farurriyah

  • 863 – Battle of Lalakaon – Byzantine army under Petronas annihilates the army of Malatya and kills its emir, Umar al-Aqta

  • 863 - Cyril and Methodius convert the Danubian Slavs to the sacradotalist heresy,

  • 863 - Poson,

  •  

  • 863-67 - The Photian Schism - was a four-year (863–867) schism between the episcopal sees of Rome and Constantinople. 

  •  

  • 868 – Siege of Ragusa – Byzantine fleet under Niketas Ooryphas relieves Ragusa and restores Byzantine control over Dalmatia

  •  

  • 871 - Battle of Ashdown:  (Alfred the Great - Vikings: Great Heathen Army)

872 somewhere to 900? - Battle of Hafrsfjord = Viking chief Harald Fairhair proclaimed himself the first king of the Norwegians  .

876? 878? - Battle of Edington (the Battle of Ethandun) - In England an army of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex under Alfred the Great defeated the Great Heathen Army led by Guthrum on a date between 6 and 12 May AD 878, resulting in the Treaty of Wedmore later the same year. Thirteen years earlier, a Viking force known as the Great Heathen Army had landed in Northern England, quickly conquering most of the country. Wessex was the last major holdout.​

note: in the long murky pre-schism time period between the Romans leaving Britain, the Norse invaders choosing to stay and conquer Britain, and their repulsion, the Catholics and Orthodox both insist that the universally practiced Faith was their own (when both contradict each other dramatically). The reality was probably great diversity of beliefs, and this shows just how both sides  "bend" history to mean whatever they want to.

877–878 – Siege of Syracuse – Fall of Syracuse to the Aghlabids.

885 - The Seige of Paris - the Franks ended up paying the Vikings a fortune in silver to stay away.


10th century:  (AD 901 to AD 1000)

907 - Rus'–Byzantine War .

912-928 Spanish Christian / Muslim war

937 - The Battle of Brunanburh:  fought between Æthelstan, King of England, and an alliance of Olaf Guthfrithson, King of DublinConstantine, King of Alba and Owen, King of Strathclyde. This battle was very significant in that it created a political map of the future that remains [in modernity].

 

987  Rus'–Byzantine War (987).     

988 - The Varangian Guard was first formally constituted under Emperor Basil II in 

 

988 - Vladimir the Great of Russia "converts" from paganism (he had about 1,000 wives and concubines) to the pre-schism form of Byzantine Christianity, but as his motive was to seek closer ties to the Byzantine Empire his very "conversion" is questionable in its sincerity.  He starts his so called Christianity by taking yet another wife to consolidate ties with the Byzantine Empire.

Abydos, 989

 


11th century:  (1001 AD to 1100 AD) .

1001-1031 Spanish Christian / Muslim war 

10:15-1016 - King Cnut invades and conquers England . (he had tw0 wives thus pretended to be converted for political reasons?)

1027 - Council of 1027 – banning warfare on certain holy days.

important note:

The Visigoth were often Arian Christians until (supposedly) 587
as were the Ostrogoth later supposedly absorbed by the Lombards. The
Vandals were also often Arian Christians until the Byzantines reconquered in 533. Saxons convert to the sacerdotalist heresy in the mid 600’s, conquered by Charlemagne and William the conqueror.

 

The Celtic had a unique form of the Faith. The Franks are often said to convert with Clovis in 496 however he is also said to be Arian by some, becoming the dominant Germanic power,  later usurped by the Holy Roman Empire and with Charlemagne. So this idea of a world united under one consistent form of Christianity is not true, and was far more complex. It is the contention of Catholicism and Orthodoxy no one on Earth accepted Jesus as only Saviour without the involvement of the priestcraft heresy up until the Reformation, 

note also:

The Orthodox will often criticize Catholic Germans by saying they adopted religio-political and magico-religious elements of Germanic religiosity, and even blood feuds. to "accommodate into Christianity" not convert, but will not accept they themselves fit that exact same profile except they accommodated and were compromised by Eastern elements of false religion, like imitating long haired gurus with long haired priests, replacing meditation with the hesychasm, and shrines of multiple idol gods turned into icons and prayers to multiple saints.

see:

POST SCHISM - Byzantine wars and battles.