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Types of Orthodoxy

Schisms - an overview.

as you will see from the long list of divisions and schisms below, the claims of the Orthodox Church that they are one big united church back to Jesus that does not have the disagreements of Protestantism is entirely false.

This  list of schisms needs dividing, that is things that the Orthodox  were converted into, are different from division among them.


Face facts - The Russian Orthodox Church is now a completely different church than the rest of the Orthodox Churches, except perhaps in Belarus.



Metropolitan Hilarion (Alfeyev)

The sixth of May marked four months since Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople signed the “Tomos” of autocephaly of the “Orthodox church of Ukraine,” according to which Epifany Dumenko was appointed the head of this newly-established structure with the title of, “Metropolitan of Kiev and All Ukraine.” Patriarch Bartholomew sent out a letter to Primates of the Local Orthodox Churches, demanding that they recognize this structure as the canonical Orthodox Church of Ukraine instead of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church led by His Beatitude Metropolitan Onuphry of Kiev and All Ukraine.

For the past four months not a single Local Orthodox Church has recognized the act committed by Patriarch Bartholomew in flagrant violation of Church canons.

X) Ecumenicalism - this takes many forms, proposed unity with the Catholics, and proposed unity with the Oriental Orthodox.

1) The Nicolaitan Apostasy. (meaning "higher than the laity" the Catholic and Orthodox churches are rooted in this heresy, which Jesus said he hated!)

1) Schisms over the canon of scripture - were most Catholics and Orthodox accept the  anagignoskomena or deuterocanon, (including "Bel and the Dragon" that proves their canon is a fake) there is however a division in their churches over accepting:

1) Psalms of Solomon, 

2) 3 Maccabees, 

3) 4 Maccabees,

4) the Epistle of Jeremiah,

5) the Book of Odes,

6) the Prayer of Manasseh 

7) Psalm 151 

which are found in some copies of the LXX (the plainly corrupted Greek {weird} text they use to translate the Old Testament from. Some Orthodox may also denounce the shortening of the Book of Jeremiah found in the LXX  (? - or am I over optimistic of their integrity?)

They are divided over the heresy of Universalism, or Universal Reconciliation! called by them Apokatastasis .

**) 144 - Marcionism (some link to later Catharism)

**) 200 - Novatians

200+ (?) Maronites - get their name from Maron, a 3rd-century Syriac Christian Saint. Often mistaken with John Maron, the first Maronite Patriarch (ruled 685-707).[9][10]  , (so their followers say)

300) Donatists - Donatus Magnus, also known as Donatus of Casae Nigrae, became leader of a Christian sect known as the Donatists . Pentecostal in beliefs?

2) The Scarlet and Purple Apostasy.

**) The Circumcellions or Agonistici - were bands of Berber Christian extremists in North Africa in the early to mid-4th century.

379? Priscillianist  . violently persecuted.

3) 431 - Ephesus

**) Council Schisms - if you research the full list or history of "Holy Apostolic Church Councils" listed on this website, you will see many of them are branded as either heretical or even Anathema councils! It just goes to show the huge number of Emperors and bishops and teachers in their own church that have had different doctrines. This "one church with one set of doctrines" spin by Orthodoxy is nonsense, they had massive numbers of divisions just like Protestants.

4) 428-431 - Nestorianism  is error in Orthodoxy, but, it came from patriarch of Constantinople Nestorius (428–31), and thus is a schism in their church, however some blame instead Cyril of Alexandria who is said to have been a jealous crank and slandered Nestorius. Christotokos some would argue is the general Protestant interpretation (??), but one must be careful, as the subject is peppered with pedantic nuances, and is related to the subject of whether Christ had two natures.

5) 451 -  Chalcedonian Schism - link:

6) 484 - 519 - Acacian Schism  : between the Eastern and Western Christian Churches lasted 35 years, from 484 to 519.[1] It resulted from a drift in the leaders of Eastern Christianity toward Miaphysitism and Emperor Zeno's unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the parties with the Henotikon[2] [3] [4]

**) 650 - 872 - Paulicians  - persecuted by Emperor Alexios

??) Bogomilism -

7) 726 - 787 - The first Iconoclast Schism.

8) 794 -  The Carolingian Council of Frankfurt - feared that the “Eastern” Council of Nicaea II had sanctioned the veneration of images beyond due limits. The gravest matter, however, concerned the insertion of the word Filioque into the Nicene-Constantinoplitan creed. The word was introduced—probably as an anti-Arian move—by the regional Council of Toledo in 589 and later spread throughout the Frankish empire; Rome adopted it only in 1014

9) 814 and 842 -  The Second Iconoclast Schism   -.

10) 1054 - The Great Schism of 1054 AD.  The excommunications, which effectively divided the East and the West, were “erased from memory and the midst of the Church” by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople in 1965, but their two churches are not yet in ecclesiastical communion.

**) Cathars or Albigensians - and are now mainly remembered for a prolonged period of persecution by the Catholic Church, which did not recognise their belief as being Christian. Catharism appeared in Europe in the Languedoc region of France in the 11th century and this is when the name first appears. 

11) 1170  - Waldensians (Peter Waldo) . a puritan type (??) religious sect based originally in southern France, now chiefly in Italy and America, founded c.1170 by Peter Valdes (d.1205), a merchant of Lyons.

1184 - Arnoldists condemned -by  Pope Lucius III  Synod of Verona in .[3]

12) 1184 (?) - Joachim Of Fiore developed a philosophy of history according to which history develops in three ages of increasing spirituality: the ages of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

13) Lollards - a follower of John Wycliff (1320s – 31 December 1384). The Lollards believed that the Church should help people to live a life of evangelical poverty and imitate Christ. Their ideas influenced the thought of John Huss, who in turn influenced Martin Luther.

**) 1378 to 1417 - The Western Schism : was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 [1] in which two, by 1410 three, men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope, each excommunicated one another. Driven by politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance (1414–1418). For a time these rival claims to the papal throne damaged the reputation of the office.

13) 1400 - Hussites,  followers of the Bohemian religious reformer Jan Hus, who was condemned by the Council of Constance (1414–18)

**) 1415 Jan Hus executed - Hussites (they fought wars) modern Moravians.

**)  Union of Ferrara-Florence - (resisted by so called "St Mark of Ephesus") Yes another proof Orthodox and Catholic councils are not inspired by God.

The Council of Florence is the seventeenth ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held between 1431 to 1449. It was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire. At stake was the greater conflict between the Conciliar movement and the principle of papal supremacy.

The Council entered a second phase after Emperor Sigismund's death in 1437. Pope Eugene IV convoked a rival Council of Ferrara on 8 January 1438 and succeeded in drawing the Byzantine ambassadors to Italy. The Council of Basel first suspended him, declared him a heretic, and then in November 1439 elected an antipopeFelix V. The rival Council of Florence (moved to avoid the plague in Ferrara) concluded in 1445 after negotiating unions with the various eastern churches. This bridging of the Great Schism proved fleeting, but was a political coup for the papacy. In 1447, Sigismund's successor Frederick III commanded the city of Basel to expel the Council of Basel; the rump council reconvened in Lausanne before dissolving itself in 1449.

14) 1517 (??) - The Reformation - Whether positively or negatively, some have interpreted the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century as the last of the medieval reform movements. 

(the Reformation) a 16th-century movement for the reform of abuses in the Roman Church ending in the establishment of the Protestant Churches and so called Reformed Churches (Calvinist).

The roots of the Reformation go back to the 14th-century attacks on the wealth and hierarchy of the Church made by groups such as the Lollards and the Hussites. But the Reformation is usually thought of as beginning in 1517 when Martin Luther issued ninety-five theses criticizing Church doctrine and practice. In Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Saxony, Hesse, and Brandenburg, supporters broke away and established Protestant Churches, while in Switzerland a separate movement was led by Zwingli and later Calvin.

20th Century Schisms -

1) Ordination of women

2) Ecumenicalism & World Council of Churches

3) Homosexual clergy 


*) 1652+ - Old Believers:  or Old Ritualists 1652+ -  (Russian: старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666. After 1685, a period of persecutions began, including both torture and executions.

a) The Popovtsy ("priested ones") or Popovschina were from the 17th century one of the two main factions of Old Believers,

b) The Bezpopovtsy ("priestless ones").


The Great "Aerial Toll House" division: - Orthodoxy is behind the scenes split in two over the belief in Toll Houses, places on the way to either "Abraham's Bosom" or "the Pit of Hades". This is of super-massive doctrinal importance and is no small issue.

Thousands of sects - the Orthodox church in fact has thousands of subdivisions who believe a core centre of beliefs (ironically mostly false, and very often frivolous), but are free to believe what they want on many issues from "do you believe in ghosts?" to capital punishment. You can be pronounced anathema by them over relatively minor issues, and believe what you want on more serious issues. Then they condemn Protestants who openly declare their differing beliefs, yet like the Orthodox there is a core centre shared theology 100 times more accurate than that of Orthodoxy, and Protestants do believe in one church - those who are truly born again. 

Heresy trials - one of the things the Catholics hide in their archives, and the Orthodox do not feel disposed to share either, is the massive number of heresy trials of individuals, that might unveil schisms among whole groups.

For instance - Maximus the Confessor (580-662 AD) was put on trial for heresy, found guilty, and they then chopped off his hand and cut out his tongue as a punishment. Then later on (this is even more amazing) they decided it was him who was right and the people who put him on trial that were wrong about the doctrine! Amazing for a church that claims it is "infallible" tortured and mutilated a man for being Dyothelite, then decided it was them who had been wrong.

5) The Uniate Schism. early modern period.  -  a modern attempt at universal union between Catholics and the Orthodox, but this was attempted also and failed at the Second Council of Lyons (1274) and the Council of Florence (1439–1442), The very term "uniate" ironically has an element of protest and negativity in the title from the perspective of those opposing it, and people putting a stronger ecumenical positive spin instead term the churches Catholics of the Byzantine Rite,  Eastern Rite Catholics, Greek CatholicsMelkite Catholics and many other names.

The ROCOR Post-Reconciliation Schism:

was (and is) a schism, after a schism, that was based on the Russian church not recognizing and dealing with the effects of KGB infiltration into their bishops, and the subsequent invalid granting of autocephalous status to the OCA that is American Orthodox Church.

8) The Serganian Schism. 1927+  (Sycophancy to the State, even when "the state" is not religious or so called theocratic.)

9) The Old Calendarist Schism of the 1920's


a) The Florinites  (the largest group) 

b) The Cyprianites of the Synod in Resistance

c) The Matthewites.

10) The Melitian Schism.

11) The Patriarch of Antioch Schism.

12) The Monophysite Schism.

13) Western Rite versus Eastern Rite.

14) Rascol of the Russian Orthodox Church (mid 17th Century). - 


15) Pentecostal Orthodoxy.

16) More than one Titular Head.

17) The Photian Schism:

18) The Schism over Hesychasm (and link to Buddhist meditation). 

19) Division over icons (idols) of God the Father, and also the Holy Spirit with some Orthodox.

20) Schism over Ukrainian autocephaly. recent -

20) That the Pope is a bishop )Orthodoxy utterly split over this).

 1964 Recognition of the Catholic Church  -   Orthodox divisions over the unity/equality/recognition and other subjects began in 1964 by Pope Paul VI, John Paul II took it a step further, then further again by former Nazi, Pope Benedict XVI,  then further by the present (fake) Pope Francis.

Moscow is the 3d Rome 1453 - Muslims capture Constantinople. Many Orthodox flee to Russia, some Orthodox then say (and some still do) "Moscow is the 3d Rome" (a doctrinal difference in Orthodoxy - as many would deny this.)


**) The True Russian Orthodox Church - was a doomsday cult founded by Pyotr Kuznetsov.

**) Sergey Anatolyevitch Torop, known by his followers as Vissarion ("He who gives new life"), is a Russian false messiah. His religion combines elements of the Russian Orthodox Church with Buddhism, apocalypticism, collectivism, and ecological values. His followers observe strict regulations, are vegetarians,[3] and are allowed no vices such as smoking or drinking alcohol, and money is banned.[4][5] The aim of the group is to unite all religions on Earth.

22) Khlysts or Khlysty : (external link) (Rasputin involved?).


23)  Bezpopovtsy (external link)

24)  Raskolniks. (external link)

25) "folk Protestants" or Spiritual Christians.

26) "Molokan" is often confused with the similar sounding malakan, Molokane (dairy-eaters) — founded ~1765

27) Pryguny (jumpers) — 

28) Dukh-i-zhizniki (Spirit-and-lifers)

29) Doukhobours . (pacifists)

30) Skoptsy . (practicing castration of men and the mastectomy )

31)  Ikonobortsy (Icon-fighters, "Iconoclasts" and Zhidovstvuyushchiye (Жидовствующие: Judaizers) .

33) Union of Evangelical Christians-Baptists of Russia .

34) Reformed Orthodoxy

35) Kartanoism .

**) Sybirak . (issues of those exiled to Siberia, Russian Arctic or to Kazakhstan :  not just Poles, for religious reasons..... research .

Possible Evangelicalism???

Montanism :

Artotyrite :


Split over evolutionism recent :

Split over LGBT rights recent :


Archbishop Lazar is a rabid supporter of evolutionary theory and LGBT agenda

36) recent Ukrainian Orthodox Church splits from Russia recent :

it then further divides as there are two forms of the Ukrainian Orthodox church

1) The Moscow Patriarchate, aligned with the Russian Orthodox Church, sees itself as the only legitimate church in Ukraine. On Dec. 20, Ukrainian MPs passed a law that could force the church to add "Russian" to its name.

2) The Kiev Patriarchate rival was born after the collapse of the Soviet Union and its popularity has grown since 2014. It favours European integration and championed the independent church but the Moscow Patriarchate denounces it as schismatic.

, Titular Head signs "autocephalous" papers

37) The Celtic Orthodox Church - I need to research this, but I think they claim the standard orthodox Church is a satanic counterfeit, but this celtic church is supposedly real?


38) French Orthodox Church and the Orthodox Church of the Gauls

Aristotelian orthodoxy

hierocrats and the conciliarist ( ?? )

Church of the East (Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ‎ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church and the Persian Church, was an Eastern Christian denomination that in 410 organised itself within the Sasanian Empire and in 424 declared its leader independent of other Christian leaders. From the Persian Empire it spread to other parts of Asia in late antiquity and the Middle Ages.

Assyrian Church of the East:  is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.[4] It belongs to the eastern branch of Syriac Christianity, and uses the Divine Liturgy of Saints Mar Addai and Mar Mari belonging to the East Syrian Rite liturgy. Its main spoken language is Syriac, a dialect of Eastern Aramaic, and the majority of its adherents are ethnic Assyrians.

Schisms - personal notes.

Though these are the subdivisions of the Easter Orthodox Church, their very divided structure further emphatically shows the Orthodox claim they are just one big church together is false, and they are talking their way around the fact just as Protestant recognize one church as "all the born again believers", but have open and honest divisions, Eastern Orthodox keep simply deceiving people that they do not have similar divisions. Even in each single church people often have different beliefs,



What is really happening here is that there is in effect (in my personal opinion) a new Patriarchate of Moscow that has been added to the ancient church, but it is not emphasised by Orthodoxy.

Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Metropolitan of Sofia and Patriarch of All Bulgaria

Romanian Orthodox Church (Archbishop of Bucharest, Metropolitan of Muntenia and Dobrudja, Locum Tenens of the Throne of Caesarea of Cappadocia, and Patriarch of Romania)

Georgian Orthodox Church (Catholicos- Patriarch of All Georgia, the Archbishop of Mtskheta-Tbilisi and Metropolitan bishop of Abkhazia and Pitsunda)

FULL RECOGNIZED (but without Patriarchs?) :

Church of Cyprus (Archbishop of New Justiniana and all Cyprus)

Church of Greece (Archbishop of Athens and all Greece)

Orthodox Church of Albania (Archbishop of Tirana, Durres and all Albania)

Orthodox Church Poland (Metropolitan of Warsaw and all Poland or Archbishop of Warsaw and Metropolitan of All Poland)[e]

Orthodox Church of the Czech lands and Slovakia (Archbishop of Prague, the Metropolitan of Czech lands and Slovakia or the Archbishop of Presov, the Metropolitan of Czech lands and Slovakia)



Unrecognized / Partly Recognized / churches

Within the main body of Eastern Orthodoxy there are unresolved internal issues as to the autonomous or autocephalous status and/or legitimacy of the following Orthodox churches, particularly between those stemming from the Russian Orthodox or Constantinopolitan churches:​

Orthodox Church in America (Archbishop of Washington, Metropolitan of All America and Canada) – Not recognised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Metropolis of Bessarabia of the Romanian Orthodox Church Self-governing – Territory is claimed by the Russian Orthodox Church.​

Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church (Metropolitan of Tallinn and all Estonia) Self-governing – Recognised only by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, opposed only by the Russian Orthodox Church

Estonian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate  (Metropolitan of Tallinn and all Estonia) Self-governing – Not recognised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) (Metropolitan of Kiev and all Ukraine) Self-governing – Not recognised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate only, as of October 2018.

Orthodox Church of Ukraine (Metropolitan of Kyiv and All Ukraine) – Recognised only by the Ecumenical Patriarchate as of January 2019, opposed by the Russian, Serbian, and Polish Orthodox Churches.

True Orthodoxy..


True Orthodox separated from the mainstream communion over issues of ecumenism and calendar reform since the 1920s. .[211] 


True Orthodox churches:

Churches descending from the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia

Greek Old Calendarists

Old Calendar Bulgarian Orthodox Church

Old Calendar Romanian Orthodox Church

Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church

Serbian True Orthodox Church

Old Believers.


Old Believers are groups that do not accept liturgical reforms carried out in the Russian Orthodox Church by Patriarch Nikon in the 17th century. 

Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church (Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy)

Lipovan Orthodox Old-Rite Church (Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy)

Russian Old-Orthodox Church (Novozybkovskaya Hierarchy)

Pomorian Old-Orthodox Church (Pomortsy)


Churches not in communion with others.


Churches with irregular or unresolved canonical status are entities that have carried out episcopal consecrations outside of the norms of canon law or whose bishops have been excommunicated by one of the 14 autocephalous churches. These include nationalist and other schismatic bodies such as the Abkhazian Orthodox Church, Evangelical Orthodox Church, and Russian True Orthodox Church.

Abkhazian Orthodox Church

Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church

Communion of the Western Orthodox Churches

Evangelical Orthodox Church

Holy Orthodox Church in North America, in communion with Greek Old Calendarists

Indonesia Orthodox Church

Lusitanian Orthodox Church

Macedonian Orthodox Church

Montenegrin Orthodox Church

Russian True Orthodox Church

Turkish Orthodox Church

Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church Canonical



Eastern Catholic .

The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches,[a] are twenty-three Eastern Christian autonomous (in Latin, sui iurisparticular churches in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church. They are united with one another and with the Latin or Roman Church (also known as the Western Church). In particular, they recognize the central role of the Bishop of Rome within the College of Bishops and his infallibility when speaking ex cathedra. ,

Coptic Catholic Church

Eritrean Catholic Church

Ethiopian Catholic Church

Armenian Catholic Church

Albanian Greek Catholic Church

Belarusian Greek Catholic Church

Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church

Greek Catholic Church of Croatia and Serbia

Greek Byzantine Catholic Church

Hungarian Greek Catholic Church

Italo-Albanian Catholic Church

Macedonian Greek Catholic Church

Melkite Greek Catholic Church

Romanian Greek Catholic Church

Russian Greek Catholic Church

Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church

Slovak Greek Catholic Church

Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church

Chaldean Catholic Church

Syro-Malabar Catholic Church

Maronite Church

Syriac Catholic Church

Syro-Malankara Catholic Church

Other various

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